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Tissue Barriers 2015 Jun 17;34:e1059004. doi: 10.1080/21688370.2015.1059004.
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Mechanisms of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in sea urchin embryos.

Katow H .

Sea urchin mesenchyme is composed of the large micromere-derived spiculogenetic primary mesenchyme cells (PMC), veg2-tier macromere-derived non-spiculogenetic mesenchyme cells, the small micromere-derived germ cells, and the macro- and mesomere-derived neuronal mesenchyme cells. They are formed through the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and possess multipotency, except PMCs that solely differentiate larval spicules. The process of EMT is associated with modification of epithelial cell surface property that includes loss of affinity to the apical and basal extracellular matrices, inter-epithelial cell adherens junctions and epithelial cell surface-specific proteins. These cell surface structures and molecules are endocytosed during EMT and utilized as initiators of cytoplasmic signaling pathways that often initiate protein phosphorylation to activate the gene regulatory networks. Acquisition of cell motility after EMT in these mesenchyme cells is associated with the expression of proteins such as Lefty, Snail and Seawi. Structural simplicity and genomic database of this model will further promote detailed EMT research.

PubMed ID: 26716069
PMC ID: PMC4681286
Article link: Tissue Barriers

Genes referenced: lefty1 LOC100887844 LOC115919910 LOC115925415 piwil3 slc22a13 snai2

References [+] :
Abe, Unc-5/netrin-mediated axonal projection during larval serotonergic nervous system formation in the sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. 2014, Pubmed, Echinobase