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Biol Open 2014 Jan 15;31:94-102. doi: 10.1242/bio.20136882.
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Mesomere-derived glutamate decarboxylase-expressing blastocoelar mesenchyme cells of sea urchin larvae.

Katow H , Katow T , Abe K , Ooka S , Kiyomoto M , Hamanaka G .

The ontogenetic origin of blastocoelar glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)-expressing cells (GADCs) in larvae of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus was elucidated. Whole-mount in situ hybridisation (WISH) detected transcription of the gene that encodes GAD in H. pulcherrimus (Hp-gad) in unfertilised eggs and all blastomeres in morulae. However, at and after the swimming blastula stage, the transcript accumulation was particularly prominent in clumps of ectodermal cells throughout the embryonic surface. During the gastrula stage, the transcripts also accumulated in the endomesoderm and certain blastocoelar cells. Consistent with the increasing number of Hp-gad transcribing cells, immunoblot analysis indicated that the relative abundance of Hp-Gad increased considerably from the early gastrula stage until the prism stage. The expression pattern of GADCs determined by immunohistochemistry was identical to the pattern of Hp-gad transcript accumulation determined using WISH. In early gastrulae, GADCs formed blastocoelar cell aggregates around the blastopore with primary mesenchyme cells. The increase in the number of blastocoelar GADCs was inversely proportional to the number of ectodermal GADCs ranging from a few percent of total GADCs in early gastrulae to 80% in late prism larvae; this depended on ingression of ectodermal GADCs into the blastocoel. Some of the blastocoelar GADCs were fluorescein-positive in the larvae that developed from the 16-cell stage chimeric embryos; these comprised fluorescein-labeled mesomeres and unlabelled macromeres and micromeres. Our finding indicates that some of the blastocoelar GADCs are derived from the mesomeres and thus they are the new group of mesenchyme cells, the tertiary mesenchyme cells.

PubMed ID: 24357228
PMC ID: PMC3892164
Article link: Biol Open

Species referenced: Echinodermata
Genes referenced: LOC100887844 LOC100888622 LOC115919910 LOC579659 LOC593805

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References [+] :
Abe, Unc-5/netrin-mediated axonal projection during larval serotonergic nervous system formation in the sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. 2014, Pubmed, Echinobase