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Sci Rep 2019 Jan 24;91:517. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-37546-y.
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Toxicity of diatom-derived polyunsaturated aldehyde mixtures on sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus development.

Ruocco N , Annunziata C , Ianora A , Libralato G , Manfra L , Costantini S , Costantini M .

Diatom-derived polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs), decadienal, heptadienal and octadienal, derive from the oxidation of fatty acids and have cytotoxic and anticancer effects. PUAs, tested separately, induce malformations in sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus embryos. Decadienal induces the worst malformations and lowest survival rates. Interestingly, decadienal, heptadienal and octadienal place in motion several genes to counteract their negative effects. To date, no studies are available reporting on the effects of PUA mixtures on marine invertebrates. Here we test binary and ternary mixtures on embryonic development of P. lividus. Our findings demonstrate that mixtures of PUAs act (i) at morphological level in synergistic way, being much more severe compared to individual PUAs; (ii) at molecular level also reveal an additive effect, affecting almost all fifty genes, previously tested using individual PUAs. This study is relevant from an ecological point of view since diatoms are a major food source for both pelagic and benthic organisms. This work opens new perspectives for understanding the molecular mechanisms that marine organisms use in reacting to environmental natural toxin mixtures such as diatom PUAs.

PubMed ID: 30679744
PMC ID: PMC6345956
Article link: Sci Rep

Genes referenced: LOC100887844 LOC590297

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References [+] :
Altenburger, Mixture toxicity revisited from a toxicogenomic perspective. 2012, Pubmed