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Dev Genes Evol 2019 Jan 01;2291:1-12. doi: 10.1007/s00427-018-0622-y.
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Early development of the feeding larva of the sea urchin Heliocidaris tuberculata: role of the small micromeres.

Morris VB , Kable E , Koop D , Cisternas P , Byrne M .

The two modes of development in sea urchins are direct development, in which the adult develops directly from the gastrula to the adult and does not feed, and indirect development, in which the adult develops indirectly through a feeding larva. In this account of the indirect, feeding larva of Heliocidaris tuberculata, the question raised is whether an evolutionary difference of unequal cell divisions contributes to the development of feeding structures in the indirect larva. In indirect development, the cell divisions at the fourth and fifth cell cycles of the zygote are unequal, with four small micromeres formed at the vegetal pole at the fifth cell division. In direct development, these cell divisions are not unequal. From their position at the head of the archenteron, the small micromeres are strategically located to contribute to the feeding tissues of the larva and the adult of H. tuberculata.

PubMed ID: 30446824
Article link: Dev Genes Evol

Genes referenced: LOC100887844 LOC115919910 pole

References [+] :
Burke, Development of the esophageal muscles in embryos of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. 1988, Pubmed, Echinobase