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Differentiation 2017 Jan 01;95:31-43. doi: 10.1016/j.diff.2017.01.003.
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The small GTPase Arf6 regulates sea urchin morphogenesis.

Stepicheva NA , Dumas M , Kobi P , Donaldson JG , Song JL .

The small GTPase Arf6 is a conserved protein that is expressed in all metazoans. Arf6 remodels cytoskeletal actin and mediates membrane protein trafficking between the plasma membrane in its active form and endosomal compartments in its inactive form. While a rich knowledge exists for the cellular functions of Arf6, relatively little is known about its physiological role in development. This study examines the function of Arf6 in mediating cellular morphogenesis in early development. We dissect the function of Arf6 with a loss-of-function morpholino and constitutively active Arf6-Q67L construct. We focus on the two cell types that undergo active directed migration: the primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) that give rise to the sea urchin skeleton and endodermal cells that form the gut. Our results indicate that Arf6 plays an important role in skeleton formation and PMC migration, in part due to its ability to remodel actin. We also found that embryos injected with Arf6 morpholino have gastrulation defects and embryos injected with constitutively active Arf6 have endodermal cells detached from the gut epithelium with decreased junctional cadherin staining, indicating that Arf6 may mediate the recycling of cadherin. Thus, Arf6 impacts cells that undergo coordinated movement to form embryonic structures in the developing embryo.

PubMed ID: 28188999
PMC ID: PMC5462882
Article link: Differentiation
Grant support: [+]

Genes referenced: LOC100887844 LOC100891456 LOC115918858 LOC115919910 LOC590297 LOC594236 mpp5
Antibodies: msp130 Ab2
Morpholinos: LOC115918858 MO1

References [+] :
Adomako-Ankomah, Growth factor-mediated mesodermal cell guidance and skeletogenesis during sea urchin gastrulation. 2013, Pubmed, Echinobase