ECB-ART-37581Dev Growth Differ 2000 Oct 01;425:479-88. doi: 10.1046/j.1440-169x.2000.00535.x.
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Initial analysis of immunochemical cell surface properties, location and formation of the serotonergic apical ganglion in sea urchin embryos.
In the present study it was found that serotonergic apical ganglion (SAG)-forming cells in plutei of the sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, possessed a characteristic pear shape with broad apical sides and a pointed basal side in the acron epithelium. The basal side extended axons through the space between the epithelium and the basal lamina toward the midline of the embryo that aligned parallel to the embryonic anteroposterior axis. Serotonergic apical ganglion-forming cells had epithelial cell surface-specific proteins on their entire surface. The SAG in 4-arm plutei was composed of a 4-cell trunk region that aligned at right angles to the embryonic anteroposterior axis, and forked into two branches of one to two cells at both ends. Two branches extended toward the oral and the other two toward the aboral region, respectively. Double-stained immunohistochemistry using antiserotonin antibodies and oral ectoderm-specific anti-Ecto V monoclonal antibody or aboral ectoderm-specific anti-Ars antibodies indicated that SAG was in the aboral ectoderm region. Serotonergic apical ganglion cells were first detected in late gastrulae and increased in number rapidly between 36 and 48 h after fertilization, and then slowly afterwards. A 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation study indicated that none of the increased SAG cells were in the S phase during the aforementioned period, suggesting that SAG cells do not proliferate by cell division, but acquire the property in particular cells by transdifferentiation using a mechanism that has yet to be elucidated.
PubMed ID: 11041489
Article link: Dev Growth Differ
Genes referenced: arsal LOC100887844 LOC115919910 LOC575336