Click here to close Hello! We notice that you are using Internet Explorer, which is not supported by Echinobase and may cause the site to display incorrectly. We suggest using a current version of Chrome, FireFox, or Safari.
Dev Biol 2008 Jul 15;3192:406-15. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2008.04.003.
Show Gene links Show Anatomy links

Twist is an essential regulator of the skeletogenic gene regulatory network in the sea urchin embryo.

Wu SY , Yang YP , McClay DR .

Recent work on the sea urchin endomesoderm gene regulatory network (GRN) offers many opportunities to study the specification and differentiation of each cell type during early development at a mechanistic level. The mesoderm lineages consist of two cell populations, primary and secondary mesenchyme cells (PMCs and SMCs). The micromere-PMC GRN governs the development of the larval skeleton, which is the exclusive fate of PMCs, and SMCs diverge into four lineages, each with its own GRN state. Here we identify a sea urchin ortholog of the Twist transcription factor, and show that it plays an essential role in the PMC GRN and later is involved in SMC formation. Perturbations of Twist either by morpholino knockdown or by overexpression result in defects in progressive phases of PMC development, including specification, ingression/EMT, differentiation and skeletogenesis. Evidence is presented that Twist expression is required for the maintenance of the PMC specification state, and a reciprocal regulation between Alx1 and Twist offers stability for the subsequent processes, such as PMC differentiation and skeletogenesis. These data illustrate the significance of regulatory state maintenance and continuous progression during cell specification, and the dynamics of the sequential events that depend on those earlier regulatory states.

PubMed ID: 18495103
PMC ID: PMC2517249
Article link: Dev Biol
Grant support: [+]

Genes referenced: alx1 LOC100887844 LOC115919910 LOC575170 LOC753325 slc22a13
Antibodies: msp130 Ab2
Morpholinos: LOC753325 MO1 LOC753325 MO2

References [+] :
Alexander, N-cadherin gene expression in prostate carcinoma is modulated by integrin-dependent nuclear translocation of Twist1. 2006, Pubmed