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Evodevo 2018 Jan 22;9:1. doi: 10.1186/s13227-017-0089-3.
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A novel gene''s role in an ancient mechanism: secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 is a critical component in the anterior-posterior Wnt signaling network that governs the establishment of the anterior neuroectoderm in sea urchin embryos.

Khadka A , Martínez-Bartolomé M , Burr SD , Range RC .

The anterior neuroectoderm (ANE) in many deuterostome embryos (echinoderms, hemichordates, urochordates, cephalochordates, and vertebrates) is progressively restricted along the anterior-posterior axis to a domain around the anterior pole. In the sea urchin embryo, three integrated Wnt signaling branches (Wnt/β-catenin, Wnt/JNK, and Wnt/PKC) govern this progressive restriction process, which begins around the 32- to 60-cell stage and terminates by the early gastrula stage. We previously have established that several secreted Wnt modulators of the Dickkopf and secreted Frizzled-related protein families (Dkk1, Dkk3, and sFRP-1/5) are expressed within the ANE and play important roles in modulating the Wnt signaling network during this process. In this study, we use morpholino and dominant-negative interference approaches to characterize the function of a novel Frizzled-related protein, secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP-1), during ANE restriction. sFRP-1 appears to be related to a secreted Wnt modulator, sFRP3/4, that is essential to block Wnt signaling and establish the ANE in vertebrates. Here, we show that the sea urchin sFRP3/4 orthologue is not expressed during ANE restriction in the sea urchin embryo. Instead, our results indicate that ubiquitously expressed maternal sFRP-1 and Fzl1/2/7 signaling act together as early as the 32- to 60-cell stage to antagonize the ANE restriction mechanism mediated by Wnt/β-catenin and Wnt/JNK signaling. Then, starting from the blastula stage, Fzl5/8 signaling activates zygotic sFRP-1 within the ANE territory, where it works with the secreted Wnt antagonist Dkk1 (also activated by Fzl5/8 signaling) to antagonize Wnt1/Wnt8-Fzl5/8-JNK signaling in a negative feedback mechanism that defines the outer ANE territory boundary. Together, these data indicate that maternal and zygotic sFRP-1 protects the ANE territory by antagonizing the Wnt1/Wnt8-Fzl5/8-JNK signaling pathway throughout ANE restriction, providing precise spatiotemporal control of the mechanism responsible for the establishment of the ANE territory around the anterior pole of the sea urchin embryo.

PubMed ID: 29387332
PMC ID: PMC5778778
Article link: Evodevo
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Echinodermata
Genes referenced: dkk foxe3l LOC100887844 LOC115919910 LOC115919915 LOC575170 LOC582802 LOC590297 LOC594353 mapk9 pole sfrpl six6 wnt1 wnt8a
Morpholinos: dkk MO1 fzd2 MO1 sfrp5 MO3 sfrp5 MO4

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Adamska, Wnt and TGF-beta expression in the sponge Amphimedon queenslandica and the origin of metazoan embryonic patterning. 2007, Pubmed