ECB-ART-46995Int J Biol Macromol June 1, 2019; 130 229-237.
Glycosaminoglycan from Apostichopus japonicus induces immunomodulatory activity in cyclophosphamide-treated mice and in macrophages.
This study was designed to systematically elucidate the immunomodulation effect of glycosaminoglycan from Apostichopus japonicus (AHG) in cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced immunosuppression model and potential mechanism responsible for the activation of macrophages. The results showed that the treatment with AHG could increase natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity, carbon clearance and marker enzymes activities in CY-induced immunosuppression mice, indicating that the innate immunity experienced recovery to some extent. Moreover, CY-induced reductions in thymus and spleen indices, serum levels of cytokines, immunoglobulins and hemolysin, as well as the ratio of spleen lymphocyte subsets were recovered by AHG, suggesting that AHG could improve the adaptive immunity through cellular immunity and humoral immunity. Delightedly, it was found that AHG at 10 mg/kg body weight could restore the CY-induced immunosuppression in mice to normal level on both innate and adaptive immunity. Furthermore, AHG also promoted both the expression of NO, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-18 and MCP-1 protein and related mRNA in macrophages. It was revealed that AHG activated macrophages through the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-B (NF-κB). In conclusion, AHG exerts remarkable immunomodulatory activities in both innate and adaptive immune system. These findings should have great value for further study on the immunopotentiating mechanisms of this biomacromolecule.
PubMed ID: 30797007
Article link: Int J Biol Macromol
Genes referenced: cmpk1 LOC574837 LOC586799