ECB-ART-45567Brief Funct Genomics September 1, 2017; 16 (5): 309-318.
Recent advances in functional perturbation and genome editing techniques in studying sea urchin development.
Studies on the gene regulatory networks (GRNs) of sea urchin embryos have provided a basic understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling animal development. The causal links in GRNs have been verified experimentally through perturbation of gene functions. Microinjection of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) into the egg is the most widely used approach for gene knockdown in sea urchin embryos. The modification of MOs into a membrane-permeable form (vivo-MOs) has allowed gene knockdown at later developmental stages. Recent advances in genome editing tools, such as zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector-based nucleases and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system, have provided methods for gene knockout in sea urchins. Here, we review the use of vivo-MOs and genome editing tools in sea urchin studies since the publication of its genome in 2006. Various applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 system and their potential in studying sea urchin development are also discussed. These new tools will provide more sophisticated experimental methods for studying sea urchin development.
PubMed ID: 28605407
Article link: Brief Funct Genomics
Genes referenced: skiv2l