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Chemosphere December 1, 2005; 61 (8): 1198-203.

Effects of heavy metals on sea urchin embryo development. Part 2. Interactive toxic effects of heavy metals in synthetic mine effluents.

Kobayashi N , Okamura H .

Interactive toxic effects between heavy metals were investigated using a sea urchin (Anthocidaris crassispina) bioassay. An effluent from an abandoned mine showed significant inhibitory effects on embryo development as well as producing specific malformations. The effects on the embryos were reproduced by synthetic polluted seawater consisting of eight metals (manganese, lead, cadmium, nickel, zinc, chromium, iron, and copper) at the concentrations detected in the mine effluent. This indicated that the heavy metals were responsible for the effects observed. Five heavy metals were ranked in decreasing order of toxicity as follows: Cu>Zn>Pb>Fe>Mn. Among these, zinc and manganese could cause malformation of the embryos. From bioassay results using 27 combinations of heavy metals, 16 combinations including zinc could produce specific malformations, such as radialized, exo-gastrulal, and spaceship Apollo-like gastrulal embryos. Zinc was one of the elements responsible for causing malformations and its effects were intensified by the presence of the other metals, such as manganese, lead, iron, and copper.

PubMed ID: 16263390
Article link: Chemosphere

Genes referenced: LOC115919139 skiv2l