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Dev Comp Immunol 2023 Feb 01;139:104580. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2022.104580.
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Functional characterization of the MyD88 homologs in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

Chou ST , Lin TM , Yang HY , Fugmann SD .

Toll-like receptor signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway to induce the expression of immune mediators in response to encounters with pathogens. MyD88 is a central adapter connecting the intracellular domain of the receptors to downstream kinases. Here, we conducted a comprehensive assessment of the MyD88 family in an echinoderm, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Of five SpMyD88s only two closely related proteins, SpMyD88A and SpMyD88B, are functional in mammalian cell lines as their overexpression facilitates the activation of the downstream transcription factor NF-κB. This requires the presence of the endogenous mammalian MyD88s, and domain swapping indicated that the death domains of S. purpuratus MyD88 are unable to efficiently connect to the respective domains of the vertebrate IRAK kinases. This suggests that the interaction surfaces between the signaling mediators in this conserved signaling pathway are not as conserved as previously thought but were likely shaped and evolved by pathogenic selection over evolutionary timescales.

PubMed ID: 36306972
Article link: Dev Comp Immunol