ECB-ART-51188Dev Comp Immunol 2023 Mar 01;140:104584. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2022.104584.
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The echinoid complement system inferred from genome sequence searches.
The vertebrate complement cascade is an essential host protection system that functions at the intersection of adaptive and innate immunity. However, it was originally assumed that complement was present only in vertebrates because it was activated by antibodies and functioned with adaptive immunity. Subsequently, the identification of the key component, SpC3, in sea urchins plus a wide range of other invertebrates significantly expanded the concepts of how complement functions. Because there are few reports on the echinoid complement system, an alternative approach to identify complement components in echinoderms is to search the deduced proteins encoded in the genomes. This approach identified known and putative members of the lectin and alternative activation pathways, but members of the terminal pathway are absent. Several types of complement receptors are encoded in the genomes. Complement regulatory proteins composed of complement control protein (CCP) modules are identified that may control the activation pathways and the convertases. Other regulatory proteins without CCP modules are also identified, however regulators of the terminal pathway are absent. The expansion of genes encoding proteins with Macpf domains is noteworthy because this domain is a signature of perforin and proteins in the terminal pathway. The results suggest that the major functions of the echinoid complement system are detection of foreign targets by the proteins that initiate the activation pathways resulting in opsonization by SpC3b fragments to augment phagocytosis and destruction of the foreign targets by the immune cells.
PubMed ID: 36343741
Article link: Dev Comp Immunol