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ECB-ART-51014
Environ Toxicol Chem October 1, 2022; 41 (10): 2580-2594.
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The Influence of Oil-in-Water Preparations on the Toxicity of Crude Oil to Marine Invertebrates and Fish Following Short-Term Pulse and Continuous Exposures.

Hook SE , Strzelecki J , Adams MS , Binet MT , McKnight K , Golding LA , Elsdon TS .


Abstract
Following an oil spill, accurate assessments of the ecological risks of exposure to compounds within petroleum are required, as is knowledge regarding how those risks may change with the use of chemical dispersants. Laboratory toxicity tests are frequently used to assess these risks, but differences in the methods for preparation of oil-in-water solutions may confound interpretation, as may differences in exposure time to those solutions. In the present study, we used recently developed modifications of standardized ecotoxicity tests with copepods (Acartia sinjiensis), sea urchins (Heliocidaris tuberculata), and fish embryos (Seriola lalandi) to assess their response to crude oil solutions and assessed whether the oil-in-water preparation method changed the results. We created a water-accommodated fraction, a chemically enhanced water-accommodated fraction, and a high-energy water-accommodated fraction (HEWAF) using standard approaches using two different dispersants, Corexit 9500 and Slickgone NS. We found that toxicity was best related to total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (TPAH) concentrations in solution, regardless of the preparation method used, and that the HEWAF was the most toxic because it dispersed the highest quantity of oil into solution. The TPAH composition in water did not vary appreciably with different preparation methods. For copepods and sea urchins, we also found that at least some of the toxic response could be attributed to the chemical oil dispersant. We did not observe the characteristic cardiac deformities that have been previously reported in fish embryos, most likely due to the use of unweathered oil, and, as a consequence, the high proportion of naphthalenes relative to cardiotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the overall composition. The present study highlights the need to characterize both the TPAH composition and concentration in test solutions when assessing oil toxicity. Environ Toxicol Chem 2022;41:2580-2594. © 2022 SETAC.

PubMed ID: 35856873
Article link: Environ Toxicol Chem
Grant support: [+]