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Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2021 Feb 24;853:675-686. doi: 10.1093/bbb/zbaa088.
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Sea urchin gangliosides exhibit neuritogenic effects in neuronal PC12 cells via TrkA- and TrkB-related pathways.

Wang X , Li Y , Wang Y , Liu Y , Xue C , Cong P , Xu J .

Gangliosides (GLSs) are ubiquitously distributed in all tissues but highly enriched in nervous system. Currently, it is unclear how exogenous GLSs regulate neuritogenesis, although neural functions of endogenous GLSs are widely studied. Herein, we evaluated the neuritogenic activities and mechanism of sea urchin gangliosides (SU-GLSs) in vitro. These different glycosylated SU-GLSs, including GM4(1S), GD4(1S), GD4(2A), and GD4(2G), promoted differentiation of NGF-induced PC12 cells in a dose-dependent and structure-selective manner. Sulfate-type and disialo-type GLSs exhibited stronger neuritogenic effects than monosialoganglioside GM1. Furthermore, SU-GLSs might act as neurotrophic factors possessing neuritogenic effects, via targeting tyrosine-kinase receptors (TrkA and TrkB) and activating MEK1/2-ERK1/2-CREB and PI3K-Akt-CREB pathways. This activation resulted in increased expression and secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). These pathways were verified by specific inhibitors. Our results confirmed the neuritogenic functions of SU-GLS in vitro and indicated their potential roles as natural nutrition for neuritogenesis.

PubMed ID: 33589896
Article link: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem