Click here to close Hello! We notice that you are using Internet Explorer, which is not supported by Echinobase and may cause the site to display incorrectly. We suggest using a current version of Chrome, FireFox, or Safari.
Biology (Basel) 2021 Feb 18;102:. doi: 10.3390/biology10020161.
Show Gene links Show Anatomy links

Neurotoxicity in Marine Invertebrates: An Update.

Deidda I , Russo R , Bonaventura R , Costa C , Zito F , Lampiasi N .

Invertebrates represent about 95% of existing species, and most of them belong to aquatic ecosystems. Marine invertebrates are found at intermediate levels of the food chain and, therefore, they play a central role in the biodiversity of ecosystems. Furthermore, these organisms have a short life cycle, easy laboratory manipulation, and high sensitivity to marine pollution and, therefore, they are considered to be optimal bioindicators for assessing detrimental chemical agents that are related to the marine environment and with potential toxicity to human health, including neurotoxicity. In general, albeit simple, the nervous system of marine invertebrates is composed of neuronal and glial cells, and it exhibits biochemical and functional similarities with the vertebrate nervous system, including humans. In recent decades, new genetic and transcriptomic technologies have made the identification of many neural genes and transcription factors homologous to those in humans possible. Neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and altered levels of neurotransmitters are some of the aspects of neurotoxic effects that can also occur in marine invertebrate organisms. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of major marine pollutants, such as heavy metals, pesticides, and micro and nano-plastics, with a focus on their neurotoxic effects in marine invertebrate organisms. This review could be a stimulus to bio-research towards the use of invertebrate model systems other than traditional, ethically questionable, time-consuming, and highly expensive mammalian models.

PubMed ID: 33670451
PMC ID: PMC7922589
Article link: Biology (Basel)

Article Images: [+] show captions