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Environ Monit Assess 2021 Oct 02;19310:685. doi: 10.1007/s10661-021-09436-w.
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Towards standard methods for the classification of aquatic toxicity for biologically active household chemicals (BAHC) present in plastics, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic products.

A standard method to test the aquatic toxicity of biologically active household chemicals (BAHC), including those with very low water solubility, is proposed. The method uses the common marine models Paracentrotus lividus embryos and Acartia clausi larvae, in order to advance towards derivation of water quality criteria for these emerging pollutants that currently lack environmental standards. Depending on the water solubility and octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) of the substance, the protocol consists of testing the toxicity of the substances by serial dilutions of water stocks, dimethyl-sulfoxide stocks, or 100 mg/L lixiviates in seawater. When this method is applied to eleven model BAHC, the pharmaceutical fluoxetine, the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene, and the UV filters broadly present in cosmetics octocrylene and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, are classified as very toxic to aquatic life, since their EC50 values are < 1 mg/L. In general, both biological models, P. lividus and A. clausi, yield the same classification of the substances tested, but variations in the classification of aquatic toxicity depending on methodological aspects are discussed. The use of A. clausi nauplii provides more protecting value to the toxicity parameters obtained by using this protocol.

PubMed ID: 34599667
PMC ID: PMC8487416
Article link: Environ Monit Assess
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