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Mar Drugs 2012 Nov 05;1011:2467-80. doi: 10.3390/md10112467.
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Isolation and structure elucidation of GM4-type gangliosides from the Okinawan starfish Protoreaster nodosus.

Pan K , Tanaka C , Inagaki M , Higuchi R , Miyamoto T .

Three new ganglioside molecular species, termed PNG-1, PNG-2A, and PNG-2B were isolated from pyloric caeca of the starfish Protoreaster nodosus. Their structures were elucidated using a combination of spectroscopic and chemical methods, and characterized as 1-O-[8-O-methyl-N-acetyl-α-neuraminosyl-(2→3)-β-galactopyranosyl]-ceramide for PNG-1, 1-O-[β-galactofuranosyl-(1→3)-α-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-8-O-methyl-N-acetyl-α-neuraminosyl-(2→3)-β-galactopyranosyl]-ceramide for PNG-2A, and 1-O-[β-galacto furanosyl-(1→3)-α-galactopyranosyl-(1→9)-N-acetyl-α-neuraminosyl-(2→3)-β-galactopyr anosyl]-ceramide for PNG-2B. PNG-2A and PNG-2B represent the first GM4 elongation products in nature.

PubMed ID: 23203271
PMC ID: PMC3509529
Article link: Mar Drugs

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References [+] :
Chisada, The glycosphingolipid receptor for Vibrio trachuri in the red sea bream intestine is a GM4 ganglioside which contains 2-hydroxy fatty acids. 2005, Pubmed