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Dev Dyn 2011 Mar 01;2403:704-11. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.22557.
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Nodal-mediated epigenesis requires dynamin-mediated endocytosis.

Ertl RP , Robertson AJ , Saunders D , Coffman JA .

Nodal proteins are diffusible morphogens that drive pattern formation via short-range feedback activation coupled to long-range Lefty-mediated inhibition. In the sea urchin embryo, specification of the secondary (oral-aboral) axis occurs via zygotic expression of nodal, which is localized to the prospective oral ectoderm at early blastula stage. In mid-blastula stage embryos treated with low micromolar nickel or zinc, nodal expression expands progressively beyond the confines of this localized domain to encompass the entire equatorial circumference of the embryo, producing radialized embryos lacking an oral-aboral axis. RNAseq analysis of embryos treated with nickel, zinc, or cadmium (which does not radialize embryos) showed that several genes involved in endocytosis were similarly perturbed by nickel and zinc but not cadmium. Inhibiting dynamin, a GTPase required for receptor-mediated endocytosis, phenocopies the effects of nickel and zinc, suggesting that dynamin-mediated endocytosis is required as a sink to limit the range of Nodal signaling.

PubMed ID: 21337468
PMC ID: PMC3079387
Article link: Dev Dyn
Grant support: [+]

Genes referenced: lefty1 LOC100887844 nodall
Morpholinos: nodall MO3

References [+] :
Agca, Respecification of ectoderm and altered Nodal expression in sea urchin embryos after cobalt and nickel treatment. 2009, Pubmed, Echinobase