ECB-ART-35964Mol Biol Evol 1994 Jul 01;114:648-55. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a040143.
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Deuterostome phylogeny and the sister group of the chordates: evidence from molecules and morphology.
Complete coding regions of the 18S rRNA gene of an enteropneust hemichordate and an echinoid and ophiuroid echinoderm were obtained and aligned with 18S rRNA gene sequences of all major chordate clades and four outgroups. Gene sequences were analyzed to test morphological character phylogenies and to assess the strength of the signal. Maximum-parsimony analysis of the sequences fails to support a monophyletic Chordata; the urochordates form the sister taxon to the hemichordates, and together this clade plus the echinoderms forms the sister taxon to the cephalochordates plus craniates. Decay, bootstrap, and tree-length distribution analyses suggest that the signal for inference of dueterostome phylogeny is weak in this molecule. Parsimony analysis of morphological plus molecular characters supports both monophyly of echinoderms plus enteropneust hemichordates and a sister group relationship of this clade to chordates. Evolutionary parsimony does not support chordate monophyly. Neighbor-joining, Fitch-Margoliash, and maximum-likelihood analyses support a chordate lineage that is the sister group to an echinoderm-plus-hemichordate lineage. The results illustrate both the limitations of the 18S rRNA molecule alone for high-level phylogeny inference and the importance of considering both molecular and morphological data in phylogeny reconstruction.
PubMed ID: 8078403
Article link: Mol Biol Evol