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Biomolecules 2023 Oct 30;1311:. doi: 10.3390/biom13111594.
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The Role of Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase in the Regulation of Flagellar Motility in Ascidian Sperm.

Shiba K , Inaba K .

Flagellar motility in sperm is activated and regulated by factors related to the eggs at fertilization. In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, a sulfated steroid called the SAAF (sperm activating and attracting factor) induces both sperm motility activation and chemotaxis. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is one of the most important intracellular factors in the sperm signaling pathway. Adenylyl cyclase (AC) is the key enzyme that synthesizes cAMP at the onset of the signaling pathway in all cellular functions. We previously reported that both transmembrane AC (tmAC) and soluble AC (sAC) play important roles in sperm motility in Ciona. The tmAC plays a major role in the SAAF-induced activation of sperm motility. On the other hand, sAC is involved in the regulation of flagellar beat frequency and the Ca2+-dependent chemotactic movement of sperm. In this study, we focused on the role of sAC in the regulation of flagellar motility in Ciona sperm chemotaxis. The immunochemical analysis revealed that several isoforms of sAC protein were expressed in Ciona sperm, as reported in mammals and sea urchins. We demonstrated that sAC inhibition caused strong and transient asymmetrization during the chemotactic turn, and then sperm failed to turn toward the SAAF. In addition, real-time Ca2+ imaging in sperm flagella revealed that sAC inhibition induced an excessive and prolonged Ca2+ influx to flagella. These results indicate that sAC plays a key role in sperm chemotaxis by regulating the clearance of [Ca2+]i and by modulating Ca2+-dependent flagellar waveform conversion.

PubMed ID: 38002275
Article link: Biomolecules
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References [+] :
Balbach, Soluble adenylyl cyclase inhibition prevents human sperm functions essential for fertilization. 2021, Pubmed