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Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2023 Mar 01;3243:C777-C786. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00524.2022.
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Soluble adenylyl cyclase coordinates intracellular pH homeostasis and biomineralization in calcifying cells of a marine animal.

Chang WW , Thies AB , Tresguerres M , Hu MY .

Biomineralizing cells concentrate dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and remove protons from the site of mineral precipitation. However, the molecular regulatory mechanisms that orchestrate pH homeostasis and biomineralization of calcifying cells are poorly understood. Here, we report that the acid-base sensing enzyme soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) coordinates intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in the calcifying primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) of sea urchin larvae. Single-cell transcriptomics, in situ hybridization, and immunocytochemistry elucidated the spatiotemporal expression of sAC during skeletogenesis. Live pHi imaging of PMCs revealed that the downregulation of sAC activity with two structurally unrelated small molecules inhibited pHi regulation of PMCs, an effect that was rescued by the addition of cell-permeable cAMP. Pharmacological sAC inhibition also significantly reduced normal spicule growth and spicule regeneration, establishing a link between PMC pHi regulation and biomineralization. Finally, increased expression of sAC mRNA was detected during skeleton remineralization and exposure to CO2-induced acidification. These findings suggest that transcriptional regulation of sAC is required to promote remineralization and to compensate for acidic stress. This work highlights the central role of sAC in coordinating acid-base regulation and biomineralization in calcifying cells of a marine animal.

PubMed ID: 36779665
Article link: Am J Physiol Cell Physiol

Antibodies: adcy10 Ab2