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J Biol Chem 2022 Mar 01;2983:101667. doi: 10.1016/j.jbc.2022.101667.
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Xenophagy of invasive bacteria is differentially activated and modulated via a TLR-TRAF6-Beclin1 axis in echinoderms.

Shao Y , Wang Z , Chen K , Li D , Lv Z , Zhang C , Zhang W , Li C .

In marine environments, organisms are confronted with numerous microbial challenges, although the differential regulation of xenophagy in response to different pathogenic bacterial species remains relatively unknown. Here, we addressed this issue using Apostichopus japonicus as a model. We identified 39 conserved autophagy-related genes by genome-wide screening, which provided a molecular basis for autophagy regulation in sea cucumbers. Furthermore, xenophagy of two Gram-negative bacteria, Vibrio splendidus and Escherichia coli, but not a Gram-positive bacteria, Micrococcus luteus, was observed in different autophagy assays. Surprisingly, a significantly higher autophagy capacity was found in the E. coli-challenged group than in the V. splendidus-challenged group. To confirm these findings, two different lipopolysaccharides, LPSV. splendidus and LPSE. coli, were isolated; we found that these LPS species differentially activated coelomocyte xenophagy. To explore the molecular mechanism mediating differential levels of xenophagy, we used an siRNA knockdown assay and confirmed that LPSV. splendidus-mediated xenophagy was dependent on an AjTLR3-mediated pathway, whereas LPSE. coli-mediated xenophagy was dependent on AjToll. Moreover, the activation of different AjTLRs resulted in AjTRAF6 ubiquitination and subsequent activation of K63-linked ubiquitination of AjBeclin1. Inversely, the LPSV. splendidus-induced AjTLR3 pathway simultaneously activated the expression of AjA20, which reduced the extent of K63-linked ubiquitination of AjBeclin1 and impaired the induction of autophagy; however, this finding was no t evident with LPSE. coli. Our present results provide the first evidence showing that xenophagy could be differentially induced by different bacterial species to yield differential autophagy levels in echinoderms.

PubMed ID: 35120925
PMC ID: PMC8902612
Article link: J Biol Chem

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