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Environ Pollut 2020 Aug 01;263Pt B:114467. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114467.
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The Echinodermata PPAR: Functional characterization and exploitation by the model lipid homeostasis regulator tributyltin.

Capitão A , Lopes-Marques M , Páscoa I , Ruivo R , Mendiratta N , Fonseca E , Castro LFC , Santos MM .

The wide ecological relevance of lipid homeostasis modulators in the environment has been increasingly acknowledged. Tributyltin (TBT), for instance, was shown to cause lipid modulation, not only in mammals, but also in fish, molluscs, arthropods and rotifers. In vertebrates, TBT is known to interact with a nuclear receptor heterodimer module, formed by the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). These modulate the expression of genes involved in lipid homeostasis. In the present work, we isolated for the first time the complete coding region of the Echinodermata (Paracentrotus lividus) gene orthologues of PPAR and RXR and evaluated the ability of a model lipid homeostasis modulator, TBT, to interfere with the lipid metabolism in this species. Our results demonstrate that TBT alters the gonadal fatty acid composition and gene expression patterns: yielding sex-specific responses in fatty acid levels, including the decrease of eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA) in males, and increase of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ARA) in females, and upregulation of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (acsl), ppar and rxr. Furthermore, an in vitro test using COS-1 cells as host and chimeric receptors with the ligand binding domain (LBD) of P. lividus PPAR and RXR shows that organotins (TBT and TPT (Triphenyltin)) suppressed activity of the heterodimer PPAR/RXR in a concentration-dependent manner. Together, these results suggest that TBT acts as a lipid homeostasis modulator at environmentally relevant concentrations in Echinodermata and highlight a possible conserved mode of action via the PPAR/RXR heterodimer.

PubMed ID: 32278212
Article link: Environ Pollut

Genes referenced: acox1 gfi1