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Dev Biol 2020 Feb 01;4581:12-31. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2019.10.005.
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Insights into intestinal regeneration signaling mechanisms.

Bello SA , Torres-Gutiérrez V , Rodríguez-Flores EJ , Toledo-Román EJ , Rodríguez N , Díaz-Díaz LM , Vázquez-Figueroa LD , Cuesta JM , Grillo-Alvarado V , Amador A , Reyes-Rivera J , García-Arrarás JE .

The cellular mechanisms underlying the amazing ability of sea cucumbers to regenerate their autotomized intestines have been widely described by us and others. However, the signaling pathways that control these mechanisms are unknown. Previous studies have shown that Wnt homologs are upregulated during early intestinal regenerative stages, suggesting that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is active during this process. Here, we used small molecules, putative disruptors of the Wnt pathway, to determine the potential role of the canonical Wnt pathway on intestine regeneration in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima. We evaluated their effects in vivo by using histological analyses for cell dedifferentiation, cell proliferation and apoptosis. We found that iCRT14, an alleged Wnt pathway inhibitor, decreased the size of the regenerating intestine, while LiCl, a presumed Wnt pathway activator, increased its size. The possible cellular mechanisms by which signaling pathway disruptors affect the gut rudiment size were further studied in vitro, using cultures of tissue explants and additional pharmacological agents. Among the tested signaling activators, those that act through GSK-3 inhibition, LiCl, 1-Azakenpaullone, and CHIR99021 were found to increase muscle cell dedifferentiation, while the inhibitor iCRT14 blocked cell dedifferentiation. Differently, cell proliferation was reduced by all GSK-3 inhibitors, as well as by iCRT14 and C59, which interferes with Wnt ligand secretion. The in vivo temporal and spatial pattern of β-catenin activity was determined using an antibody against phosphorylated β-catenin and shown to correlate with cell proliferative activity. In vitro treatment using C59 decreased the number of cells immunostained for nuclear phosphorylated β-catenin. Our results showed that the cell dedifferentiation observed during intestinal regeneration can be decoupled from the cell proliferation event and that these cellular processes can be modulated by particular signaling pathway inhibitors and activators. These results open the door for future studies where the cellular signaling pathways involved at each regeneration stage can be determined.

PubMed ID: 31605680
PMC ID: PMC6987020
Article link: Dev Biol
Grant support: [+]

Genes referenced: gsk3a LOC100887844 LOC115919910 LOC590297 LOC594353

References [+] :
Adell, Planarian GSK3s are involved in neural regeneration. 2008, Pubmed