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Mol Biol Cell 2019 Jul 22;3016:1911-1919. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E19-03-0143.
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Cell rearrangement induced by filopodial tension accounts for the late phase of convergent extension in the sea urchin archenteron.

Hardin J , Weliky M .

George Oster was a pioneer in using mechanical models to interrogate morphogenesis in animal embryos. Convergent extension is a particularly important morphogenetic process to which George Oster gave significant attention. Late elongation of the sea urchin archenteron is a classic example of convergent extension in a monolayered tube, which has been proposed to be driven by extrinsic axial tension due to the activity of secondary mesenchyme cells. Using a vertex-based mechanical model, we show that key features of archenteron elongation can be accounted for by passive cell rearrangement due to applied tension. The model mimics the cell elongation and the Poisson effect (necking) that occur in actual archenterons. We also show that, as predicted by the model, ablation of secondary mesenchyme cells late in archenteron elongation does not result in extensive elastic recoil. Moreover, blocking the addition of cells to the base of the archenteron late in archenteron elongation leads to excessive cell rearrangement consistent with tension-induced rearrangement of a smaller cohort of cells. Our mechanical simulation suggests that responsive rearrangement can account for key features of archenteron elongation and provides a useful starting point for designing future experiments to examine the mechanical properties of the archenteron.

PubMed ID: 31116648
PMC ID: PMC6727778
Article link: Mol Biol Cell
Grant support: [+]

Genes referenced: LOC100887844 LOC100893907 LOC115919910 LOC115923516 pole
Antibodies: LOC590790 Ab2

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Adelson, Sea urchin morphogenesis and cell-hyalin adhesion are perturbed by a monoclonal antibody specific for hyalin. 1988, Pubmed, Echinobase