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SAGE Open Med 2018 Nov 02;6:2050312118809541. doi: 10.1177/2050312118809541.
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Anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities of the sea cucumber Holothuria polii aqueous extract.

Kareh M , El Nahas R , Al-Aaraj L , Al-Ghadban S , Naser Al Deen N , Saliba N , El-Sabban M , Talhouk R .

Objective: Sea cucumbers are considered among the most important functional foods. Following bioassay guided fractionation, we assessed the anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities of Holothuria polii (H. polii) extracts. Methods: Sea cucumber ethanolic extract and the partially purified aqueous fractions were assessed for their anti-proliferative activities. These latter bioactivities were evaluated in the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in two-dimensional and three-dimensional cultures using trypan blue exclusion assay. The tumor-suppressive effects of sea cucumber ethanolic extract and aqueous fractions were assayed by measuring the trans-well invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells and the expression of some epithelial mesenchymal transition markers using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous fraction was tested by measuring the secreted levels of interleukin-6, nitric oxide, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 in endotoxin-induced mammary epithelial SCp2 cells and interleukin-1β in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-activated human monocytic THP-1 cells. Results: Sea cucumber ethanolic extract and the aqueous fraction significantly decreased the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells by more than 50% at similar and noncytotoxic concentrations and caused an arrest in the S-phase of the cell cycle of treated cells. In contrast, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol organic fractions did not show any significant activity. Furthermore, sea cucumber ethanolic extract and aqueous fraction reduced the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells in three-dimensional cultures by more than 60% at noncytotoxic concentrations. In addition, treatment with these concentrations resulted in the loss of stellate outgrowths in favor of spherical aggregates and a 30% decrease in invasive properties. Both sea cucumber ethanolic extract and aqueous decreased the transcription of vimentin and the protein expression levels of vimentin and N-cadherin in three-dimensional cultures. The aqueous fraction decreased the levels of inflammatory markers interleukin-6, nitric oxide, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 in the mouse mammary SCp2 cells, and the level of interleukin-1β produced by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-activated THP-1 human monocytic cells. Conclusion: The data reveal for the first time promising anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in H. polii water extract in two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture models.

PubMed ID: 30455947
PMC ID: PMC6236865
Article link: SAGE Open Med

Genes referenced: LOC100887844 LOC100891456 LOC100893445 LOC115919910 LOC594236 polr3a slc22a13

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References [+] :
Al Marzouqi, Frondoside A inhibits human breast cancer cell survival, migration, invasion and the growth of breast tumor xenografts. 2011, Pubmed, Echinobase