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J Morphol 1983 Oct 01;1781:23-35. doi: 10.1002/jmor.1051780103.
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The structure of the larval nervous system of Pisaster ochraceus (Echinodermata: Asteroidea).

Burke RD .

Ultrastructural observations and glyoxilic acid-induced fluorescence of catecholamines indicate that tracts of axons lie at the base of the ciliary bands and run throughout their length in bipinnaria and brachiolaria larvae of Pisaster ochraceus. Two types of nerve cells occur at regular intervals within the ciliary bands. Type I nerve cells are associated with the axonal tracts, and type II nerve cells, which are ciliated, occur along the edge of the ciliary bands. Two prominent ganglia, which appear as accumulations of nerve cells and neuropile, occur on the lower lip of the larval mouth. Smaller ganglia occur irregularly throughout the ciliary band. Synapses were never clearly identified and were assumed to be unspecialized. Nervous tissues were also found associated with the esophageal muscles, the attachment organ, and the larval arms. Organization of the nervous system and its association with effectors suggest it controls swimming and feeding. Several similarities exist between the nervous systems of larval asteroids, larval echinoids, and adult echinoderms.

PubMed ID: 30075610
Article link: J Morphol

Genes referenced: LOC100892350