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J Morphol 1986 Aug 01;1892:99-120. doi: 10.1002/jmor.1051890202.
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Fine structure of the doliolaria larva of the feather star Florometra serratissima (Echinodermata: Crinoidea), with special emphasis on the nervous system.

Chia FS , Burke RD , Koss R , Mladenov PV , Rumrill SS .

The epidermis of the doliolaria larva of the Florometra serratissima is differentiated into distinct structures including an apical organ, adhesive pit, ganglion, ciliary bands, nerve plexus, and vestibular invagination. All these structures possess unique cell-types, suggesting that they are functionally specialized in the larva, except the vestibular invagination that becomes the postmetamorphic stomodeum. The epidermis also contains yellow cells, amoeboid-like cells, and secretory cells. The enteric sac, hydrocoel, axocoel, and somatocoels have differentiated but are probably not functional in the doliolaria stage. Mesenchymal cells, around the enteric sac and coeloms, appear to be actively secreting the endoskeleton and connective tissue fibers. The nervous system is composed of a nerve plexus, ganglion, and sensory receptor cells in the apical organ. The apical organ is a larval specialization of the anterior end; the ganglion is located in the base of the epidermis at the anterior dorsal end of the larva. The nerve plexus underlies most of the epidermis, although it is more prominent in the anterior region. Here, processes from sensory receptor cells of the apical organ, as well as those from nerve cells, contribute to the plexus. These processes contain one or a combination of organelles including vesicles, vacuoles, microtubules, and mitochondria. The configuration of glyoxylic acid-induced fluorescence, revealing catecholamine activity, correlates to the apical organ, nerve cells, and nerve plexus. Morphological evidence suggests that the nervous system may function in initiation and control of settlement, attachment, and metamorphosis. The crinoid larval nervous system is discussed and compared to that found in other larval echinoderms.

PubMed ID: 29940709
Article link: J Morphol

Genes referenced: adcy10 LOC115919910