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Dev Biol 2016 Feb 01;4101:108-18. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2015.12.015.
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Regulatory circuit rewiring and functional divergence of the duplicate admp genes in dorsoventral axial patterning.

Chang YC , Pai CY , Chen YC , Ting HC , Martinez P , Telford MJ , Yu JK , Su YH .

The spatially opposed expression of Antidorsalizing morphogenetic protein (Admp) and BMP signals controls dorsoventral (DV) polarity across Bilateria and hence represents an ancient regulatory circuit. Here, we show that in addition to the conserved admp1 that constitutes the ancient circuit, a second admp gene (admp2) is present in Ambulacraria (Echinodermata+Hemichordata) and two marine worms belonging to Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha. The phylogenetic distribution implies that the two admp genes were duplicated in the Bilaterian common ancestor and admp2 was subsequently lost in chordates and protostomes. We show that the ambulacrarian admp1 and admp2 are under opposite transcriptional control by BMP signals and knockdown of Admps in sea urchins impaired their DV polarity. Over-expression of either Admps reinforced BMP signaling but resulted in different phenotypes in the sea urchin embryo. Our study provides an excellent example of signaling circuit rewiring and protein functional changes after gene duplications.

PubMed ID: 26719126
Article link: Dev Biol

Genes referenced: LOC100887844 LOC100889251
Morpholinos: LOC100889251 MO1 LOC100889251 MO2 LOC100889251 MO3 egr3 MO1 egr3 MO2