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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014 Mar 11;11110:E906-13. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1323105111.
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Encoding regulatory state boundaries in the pregastrular oral ectoderm of the sea urchin embryo.

Li E , Cui M , Peter IS , Davidson EH .

By gastrulation the ectodermal territories of the sea urchin embryo have developed an unexpectedly complex spatial pattern of sharply bounded regulatory states, organized orthogonally with respect to the animal/vegetal and oral/aboral axes of the embryo. Although much is known of the gene regulatory network (GRN) linkages that generate these regulatory states, the principles by which the boundaries between them are positioned and maintained have remained undiscovered. Here we determine the encoded genomic logic responsible for the boundaries of the oral aspect of the embryo that separate endoderm from ectoderm and ectoderm from neurogenic apical plate and that delineate the several further subdivisions into which the oral ectoderm per se is partitioned. Comprehensive regulatory state maps, including all spatially expressed oral ectoderm regulatory genes, were established. The circuitry at each boundary deploys specific repressors of regulatory states across the boundary, identified in this work, plus activation by broadly expressed positive regulators. These network linkages are integrated with previously established interactions on the oral/aboral axis to generate a GRN model encompassing the 2D organization of the regulatory state pattern in the pregastrular oral ectoderm of the embryo.

PubMed ID: 24556994
PMC ID: PMC3956148
Article link: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Grant support: [+]

Genes referenced: LOC100887844 LOC575170
Morpholinos: emx1l MO1

References [+] :
Arenas-Mena, Hindgut specification and cell-adhesion functions of Sphox11/13b in the endoderm of the sea urchin embryo. 2006, Pubmed, Echinobase