ECB-ART-42610PLoS Biol 2012 Jan 01;1010:e1001404. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001404.
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Left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin embryo: BMP and the asymmetrical origins of the adult.
Bilateral animals, including humans and most metazoans, are not perfectly symmetrical. Some internal structures are distributed asymmetrically to the right or left side. A conserved Nodal and BMP signaling system directs molecular pathways that impart the sidedness to those asymmetric structures. In the sea urchin embryo, one such asymmetrical structure, oddly enough, is the entire adult, which grows out of left sided structures produced in the larva. In a paper just published in PLOS Biology, BMP signaling is shown to be necessary early in larval development to initiate the asymmetric specification of one of those left-sided structures, called the left coelomic pouch. This study reports that BMP signaling activates a group of transcription factors asymmetrically in the left coelomic pouch only, which launch the pathway that eventually leads to the formation of the adult that emerges from the larva at metamorphosis.
PubMed ID: 23055829
PMC ID: PMC3467244
Article link: PLoS Biol
Genes referenced: LOC100887844 LOC115919910 nodall pole
Article Images: [+] show captions
|Figure 1. Left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin.During cleavage, mesoderm (red cells at 60-cell stage) and small micromeres (purple cells at vegetal pole) become specified. At the end of gastrulation, progeny of these two cell types contribute to the coelomic pouches (red and purple outpockets seen at the tip of the archenteron). During larval stages, the adult rudiment grows from the left coelomic pouch. After metamorphosis, that rudiment grows to become the adult. Embryonic axes are shown relative to the 60-cell cleavage and gastrula stages. The aboral-oral axis is also known as the dorsal-ventral axis. The animal-vegetal axis is the only axis established prior to fertilization. Oral-aboral axis specification occurs early in cleavage, and left-right axis determination occurs at the late gastrula stage.|
References [+] :
Duboc, Left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin embryo is regulated by nodal signaling on the right side. 2005, Pubmed, Echinobase