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Biol Bull 2001 Jun 01;2003:268-80. doi: 10.2307/1543509.
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Development of serotonin-like and SALMFamide-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris.

Beer AJ , Moss C , Thorndyke M .

The present immunocytochemical study utilizes serotonin and SALMFamide antisera, together with confocal laser scanning microscopy, to provide new information about the development of the nervous system in the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Special attention is paid to the extent of the nervous system in later larval stages (6-armed pluteus to metamorphic competency), a characteristic that has not been well described in this and other species of sea urchin. An extensive apical ganglion appears by the 6-armed pluteus stage, forming a complex of 10-20 cells and fibers, including discrete populations of both serotonin-like and SALMF-amide-like immunoreactive cells. At metamorphosis this complex is large, comprising at least 40 cells in distinct arrays. Serotonin-like immunoreactivity is also particularly apparent in the lower lip ganglion of 6- to 8-armed plutei; this ganglion consists of 15-18 cells that are distributed around the mouth. The ciliary nerves that lie beneath the ciliary bands in the larval arms, the esophagus, and a hitherto undescribed network associated with the pylorus all show SALMFamide-like immunoreactivity. The network of cells and fibers in the pyloric area develops later in larval life. It first appears as one cell body and fiber, then increases in size and complexity through the 8-armed pluteus stage to form a complex of cells that encircles the pylorus. SALMFamide-like, but not serotonin-like, immunoreactivity is seen in the vestibule wall, tube feet, and developing radial nerve fibers of the sea urchin adult rudiment as the larva gains metamorphic competency.

PubMed ID: 11441970
Article link: Biol Bull

Genes referenced: LOC100887844 LOC100888622 LOC115919910 LOC115925415