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PLoS Biol 2012 Jan 01;1010:e1001402. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001402.
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Opposing nodal and BMP signals regulate left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin larva.

Luo YJ , Su YH .

Nodal and BMP signals are important for establishing left-right (LR) asymmetry in vertebrates. In sea urchins, Nodal signaling prevents the formation of the rudiment on the right side. However, the opposing pathway to Nodal signaling during LR axis establishment is not clear. Here, we revealed that BMP signaling is activated in the left coelomic pouch, specifically in the veg2 lineage, but not in the small micromeres. By perturbing BMP activities, we demonstrated that BMP signaling is required for activating the expression of the left-sided genes and the formation of the left-sided structures. On the other hand, Nodal signals on the right side inhibit BMP signaling and control LR asymmetric separation and apoptosis of the small micromeres. Our findings show that BMP signaling is the positive signal for left-sided development in sea urchins, suggesting that the opposing roles of Nodal and BMP signals in establishing LR asymmetry are conserved in deuterostomes.

PubMed ID: 23055827
PMC ID: PMC3467216
Article link: PLoS Biol

Species referenced: Echinodermata
Genes referenced: bmp2 dach1 ddx4 eya1 foxc1 foxf1 hlcs LOC100887844 LOC115919910 LOC583082 nanos2l nodall pax6 pitx2 six1 sox9 srpl tubgcp2
Antibodies: ddx4 Ab6 phospho-smad1 Ab1

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Aihara, Left-right positioning of the adult rudiment in sea urchin larvae is directed by the right side. 2001, Pubmed, Echinobase