ECB-ART-45503Evolution 1991 Dec 01;458:1790-1805. doi: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.1991.tb02688.x.
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POPULATION BIOLOGY OF THE TRANS-ARCTIC EXCHANGE: MtDNA SEQUENCE SIMILARITY BETWEEN PACIFIC AND ATLANTIC SEA URCHINS.
MtDNAs from 2 protein coding regions comprising 576 base pairs were sequenced from 17 individual sea urchins of the species Strongylocentrotus pallidus collected from the north Pacific and north Atlantic oceans. Twelve of 17 individual sequences were identical. Two of these were further sequenced in a third, 441 base pair region, and were also found to be identical. We show how to interpret these results using a simplified Markov model of mtDNA evolution at silent sites. The model was calibrated using 3 urchin species with a published fossil record, and shows that identical S. pallidus mtDNAs in different oceans shared a common ancestor at most 90,000-150,000 years ago (95% confidence interval of upper limit of divergence). The Markov model, used to examine patterns of genetic distance within and between species, shows unexpected variation in the rate of base substitution. The rate of change of G''s at fourfold sites is nearly 20 times greater than the rate of change of C''s. At twofold sites, this range is less extreme, although purines consistently have a higher rate of change than pyrimidines. Striking genetic similarity and recent genetic exchange between oceans for these urchins is in marked contrast to most other trans-Arctic marine populations, which usually show morphological and genetic differentiation at the species or subspecies level. Recent fossil evidence shows that the north Atlantic and northeastern Pacific have been the scene of radical faunal changes during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. The genetic results presented here extend this conclusion to intraspecific patterns of genetic variability, and direct attention to the northwest Pacific where higher productivity and less environmental change may have left a heritage of greater marine genetic diversity.
PubMed ID: 28563965
Article link: Evolution
Genes referenced: ago1b LOC100887844