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J Exp Biol 2010 Aug 01;213Pt 15:2647-54. doi: 10.1242/jeb.042374.
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Serotonin and its metabolism in basal deuterostomes: insights from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Xenoturbella bocki.

Squires LN , Rubakhin SS , Wadhams AA , Talbot KN , Nakano H , Moroz LL , Sweedler JV .

Serotonin (5-HT), an important molecule in metazoans, is involved in a range of biological processes including neurotransmission and neuromodulation. Both its creation and release are tightly regulated, as is its removal. Multiple neurochemical pathways are responsible for the catabolism of 5-HT and are phyla specific; therefore, by elucidating these catabolic pathways we glean greater understanding of the relationships and origins of various transmitter systems. Here, 5-HT catabolic pathways were studied in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Xenoturbella bocki, two organisms occupying distinct positions in deuterostomes. The 5-HT-related compounds detected in these organisms were compared with those reported in other phyla. In S. purpuratus, 5-HT-related metabolites include N-acetyl serotonin, gamma-glutamyl-serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid; the quantity and type were found to vary based on the specific tissues analyzed. In addition to these compounds, varying levels of tryptamine were also seen. Upon addition of a 5-HT precursor and a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, 5-HT itself was detected. In similar experiments using X. bocki tissues, the 5-HT-related compounds found included 5-HT sulfate, gamma-glutamyl-serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, as well as 5-HT and tryptamine. The sea urchin metabolizes 5-HT in a manner similar to both gastropod mollusks, as evidenced by the detection of gamma-glutamyl-serotonin, and vertebrates, as indicated by the presence of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and N-acetyl serotonin. In contrast, 5-HT metabolism in X. bocki appears more similar to common protostome 5-HT catabolic pathways.

PubMed ID: 20639426
PMC ID: PMC2905304
Article link: J Exp Biol
Grant support: [+]

Genes referenced: LOC100887844 LOC100888622

References [+] :
Abran, Melatonin activity rhythms in eyes and cerebral ganglia of Aplysia californica. 1995, Pubmed