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Cladistics 1998 Sep 01;143:249-285. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.1998.tb00338.x.
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Phylogeny of the Metazoa Based on Morphological and 18S Ribosomal DNA Evidence.

Zrzavý J , Mihulka S , Kepka P , Bezděk A , Tietz D .

Cladistic analysis of traditional (i.e. morphological, developmental, ultrastructural) and molecular (18S rDNA) data sets (276+501 informative characters) provides a hypothesis about relationships of all meta-zoan higher taxa. Monophyly of Metazoa, Epith-eliozoa (= -03non-Porifera), Triploblastica, Mesozoa, Eutriploblastica (=Rhabditophora+Catenulida+"higher triploblasts"=Neotriploblastica, including Xeno- turbellida and Gnathostomulida), Rhabditophora, Syndermata (="Rotifera"+Acanthocephala), Neotrichozoa (=Gastrotricha+Gnathostomulida), Nematozoa (=Nematoda+Nematomorpha), Panarthropoda (=Onychophora+Tardigrada+ Arthropoda), Cephalorhyncha, Deuterostomia, Ambulacralia (=Hemichordata+Echinodermata), Chordata, Phoronozoa (=Phoronida+"Brachiopoda"), Bryozoa, Trochozoa (=Eutrochozoa+Entoprocta+ Cycliophora), Eutrochozoa, and Chaetifera (=Annelida+ Pogonophora+Echiura) is strongly supported. Cnidaria (including Myxozoa), Ecdysozoa (=Cepha- lorhyncha + Nematozoa + Chaetognatha + Panarthropoda), Eucoelomata (=Bryozoa+Phoronozoa+Deuterostomia+Trochozoa, possibly including also Xenoturbellida), and Deuterostomia+Phoronozoa probably are monophyletic. Most traditional "phyla" are monophyletic, except for Porifera, Cnidaria (excluding Myxozoa), Platyhelminthes, Brachiopoda, and Rotifera. Three "hot" regions of the tree remain quite unresolved: basal Epitheliozoa, basal Triploblastica, and basal Neotriploblastica. A new phylogenetic classification of the Metazoa including 35 formally recognized phyla (Silicispongea, Calcispongea, Placozoa, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Acoela, Nemertodermatida, Orthonecta, Rhombozoa, Rhabditophora, Catenulida, Syndermata, Gnathostomulida, Gastrotricha, Cephalorhyncha, Chaetognatha, Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Onychophora, Tardigrada, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Chordata, Phoronozoa, Bryozoa s. str., Xenoturbellida, Entoprocta, Cycliophora, Nemertea, Mollusca, Sipuncula, Echiura, Pogonophora, and Annelida) and few i ncertae sedis g roups (e.g. Myzostomida and Lobatocerebromorpha) is proposed.

PubMed ID: 34905826
Article link: Cladistics