ECB-ART-42359Mar Drugs 2012 Feb 01;102:477-496. doi: 10.3390/md10020477.
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Ovatoxin-a and palytoxin accumulation in seafood in relation to Ostreopsis cf. ovata blooms on the French Mediterranean coast.
Dinoflagellates of the genus Ostreopsis are known to cause (often fatal) food poisoning in tropical coastal areas following the accumulation of palytoxin (PLTX) and/or its analogues (PLTX group) in crabs, sea urchins or fish. Ostreopsis spp. occurrence is presently increasing in the northern to north western Mediterranean Sea (Italy, Spain, Greece and France), probably in response to climate change. In France, Ostreopsis. cf. ovata has been associated with toxic events during summer 2006, at Morgiret, off the coast of Marseille, and a specific monitoring has been designed and implemented since 2007. Results from 2008 and 2009 showed that there is a real danger of human poisoning, as these demonstrated bioaccumulation of the PLTX group (PLTX and ovatoxin-a) in both filter-feeding bivalve molluscs (mussels) and herbivorous echinoderms (sea urchins). The total content accumulated in urchins reached 450 µg PLTX eq/kg total flesh (summer 2008). In mussels, the maximum was 230 µg eq PLTX/kg (summer 2009) compared with a maximum of 360 µg found in sea urchins during the same period at the same site. This publication brings together scientific knowledge obtained about the summer development of Ostreopsis spp. in France during 2007, 2008 and 2009.
PubMed ID: 22412814
PMC ID: PMC3297010
Article link: Mar Drugs
Genes referenced: LOC100887844 SPARC
Article Images: [+] show captions
|Figure 1. Palytoxin structure.|
|Figure 2. Recovery rate according to extraction solvent, for PLTX contained in spiked blue mussel digestive glands.|
|Figure 3. Recovery of different levels of PLTX in different tissues of marine invertebrates. The values of significance tests of the slope (t observed) of the intercept (t' observed) are below the critical Student value for α = 1%, p-2 = 10. The limits of the slope contained 1 and the limits of the intercept included 0.|
|Figure 4. Examples of LC-MS/MS analyses for (A) PLTX (m/z 1340→327, characteristic ion); and (B) ovatoxin-a (m/z 1324→327, characteristic ion) in natural samples of Ostreopsis cf. ovata and sea urchins sampled in the summers of 2007 and 2008 in the Mediterranean.|
|Figure 5. Phylogenetic tree (NJ tree) of the genus Ostreopsis based on the ITS region and 5.8S sequences. Numbers on the nodes represent bootstrap values (NJ) (1000 pseudoreplicates) and posterior probabilities (BI). The trees were rooted using Coolia sequences.|
|Figure 6. (a) Culture of Ostreopsis cf. ovata (IFR-OST-01V) isolated in 2008; (b) Detachment of Ostreopsis cells and filamentous agglomerates observed in August 2009 at Frioul islands (photographed by the CEEP).|
|Figure 7. Comparison of Ostreopsis abundance (both epiphytical and in the water) during the summers 2007, 2008 and 2009 at Morgiret bay (Frioul islands, off the coast of Marseille).|
|Figure 8. Monitoring of the bioaccumulation of PLTX-group toxins in mussels (immersed from 24 June) and sea urchins at Morgiret during the proliferations of Ostreopsis cf. ovata in summer 2009.|
References [+] :
Alcala, Human fatality due to ingestion of the crab Demania reynaudii that contained a palytoxin-like toxin. 1988, Pubmed