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Molecules 2022 Mar 17;276:. doi: 10.3390/molecules27061958.
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Comparison of the Content of Several Elements in Seawater, Sea Cucumber Eupentacta fraudatrix and Its High-Molecular-Mass Multiprotein Complex.

Zaksas NP , Timofeeva AM , Dmitrenok PS , Soboleva SE , Nevinsky G .

Metal ions and other elements play many different critical roles in all biological processes. They can be especially important in high concentrations for the functioning of organisms living in seawater. It is important to understand how much the concentrations of different trace elements in such organisms can be higher than in seawater. Some marine organisms capable of rapid recovery after different injuries are fascinating in this regard. Sea cucumbers Eupentacta fraudatrix can completely restore all organs and the whole body within several weeks after their division into two parts. Here, for the first time, a comparison of the content of different elements in seawater, sea cucumber, and its very stable multiprotein complex (2000 kDa) was performed using two-jet plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Among the 18 elements we found in sea cucumbers, seawater contained only six elements in detectable amounts, and their content decreased in the following order: Mg > Ca > B > Sr ≈ Si > Cr (0.13-930 µg/g of seawater). The content of these elements in sea cucumbers was higher compared with seawater (-fold): Ca (714) > Sr (459) > Cr (75) > Si (42)> B (12) > Mg (6.9). Only four of them had a higher concentration in the protein complex than in seawater (-fold): Si (120.0) > Cr (31.5) > Ca (9.1) > Sr (8.8). The contents of Mg and B were lower in the protein complex than in seawater. The content of elements additionally found in sea cucumbers decreased in the order (µg/g of powder) of P (1100) > Fe (47) > Mn (26) > Ba (15) > Zn (13) > Al (9.3) > Mo (2.8) > Cu (1.4) > Cd (0.3), and in the protein complex, in the order of P (290) > Zn (51) > Fe (23) > Al (14) ≈ Ni (13) > Cu (7.5) > Ba (2.5) ≈ Co (2.0) ≈ Mn (1.6) > Cd (0.7) >Ag (0.2). Thus, sea cucumbers accumulate various elements, including those contained in very low concentrations in seawater. The possible biological roles of these elements are discussed here.

PubMed ID: 35335321
PMC ID: PMC8951014
Article link: Molecules