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J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2023 Jan 01;586:550-562. doi: 10.1080/10934529.2023.2200720.
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Photo-Fenton process applied for the treatment of industrial wastewaters containing diclofenac: optimization with low iron ions concentrations and without pH control.

Miele RG , Carvalho JF , Almeida J , Oliveira IHM , Parise BF , Moraes JEF .

Diclofenac (DCF) can cause several adverse effects in the environment and it should be removed from industrial pharmaceutical wastewaters. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are promising methods for the DCF degradation. But, in many cases, AOPs require acidic pH. However, at this condition, DCF precipitates, which may hinder its oxidation. Thus, in this work, some AOP were studied for the DCF degradation, especially the photo-Fenton process, applying the experimental design technique (Doehlert matrix), operating without and with pH control (between 6.5 and 7.0). As independent variables, the initial ferrous ion concentration ([Fe2+]) and the molar addition rate of H2O2 (FH2O2) were evaluated. Empirical models were proposed and optimized conditions were determined without ([Fe2+] = 0.27 mmol L-1 and FH2O2 = 1.64 mmol min-1) and with pH control ([Fe2+] = 1.0 mmol L-1 and FH2O2 = 1.64 mmol L-1), with the following predicted mineralization percentages: 93% and 68%, respectively. So, photo-Fenton process without pH control presented the best performances. Furthermore, at this condition, iron concentration respects the limit value established by the Brazilian environmental legislation. That is, in this condition, additional processes, in order to remove iron ions, would not be necessary, that is very interesting for applications on an industrial scale.

PubMed ID: 37042057
Article link: J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng