ECB-ART-51583Int J Mol Sci 2023 Feb 18;244:. doi: 10.3390/ijms24044136.
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Polymer Chemical Identity as a Key Factor in Microplastic-Insecticide Antagonistic Effects during Embryogenesis of Sea Urchin Arbacia lixula.
As a proxy for pollutants that may be simultaneously present in urban wastewater streams, the effects of two microplastics-polystyrene (PS; 10, 80 and 230 μm diameter) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA; 10 and 50 μm diameter)-on fertilisation and embryogenesis in the sea urchin Arbacia lixula with co-exposure to the pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin were investigated. Synergistic or additive effects were not seen for plastic microparticles (50 mg L-1) in combination with cypermethrin (10 and 1000 μg L-1) based on evaluation of skeletal abnormalities or arrested development and death of significant numbers of larvae during the embryotoxicity assay. This behaviour was also apparent for male gametes pretreated with PS and PMMA microplastics and cypermethrin, where a reduction in sperm fertilisation ability was not evidenced. However, a modest reduction in the quality of the offspring was noted, suggesting that there may be some transmissible damage to the zygotes. PMMA microparticles were more readily taken up than PS microparticles, which could suggest surface chemical identity as potentially modulating the affinity of larvae for specific plastics. In contrast, significantly reduced toxicity was noted for the combination of PMMA microparticles and cypermethrin (100 μg L-1), and may be related to less ready desorption of the pyrethroid than PS, as well as cypermethrin activating mechanisms that result in reduced feeding and hence decreased ingestion of microparticles.
PubMed ID: 36835548
Article link: Int J Mol Sci