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Dev Biol 2018 Jan 15;4332:297-309. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2017.09.035.
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Fundamental aspects of arm repair phase in two echinoderm models.

Ferrario C , Ben Khadra Y , Czarkwiani A , Zakrzewski A , Martinez P , Colombo G , Bonasoro F , Candia Carnevali MD , Oliveri P , Sugni M .

Regeneration is a post-embryonic developmental process that ensures complete morphological and functional restoration of lost body parts. The repair phase is a key step for the effectiveness of the subsequent regenerative process: in vertebrates, efficient re-epithelialisation, rapid inflammatory/immune response and post-injury tissue remodelling are fundamental aspects for the success of this phase, their impairment leading to an inhibition or total prevention of regeneration. Among deuterostomes, echinoderms display a unique combination of striking regenerative abilities and diversity of useful experimental models, although still largely unexplored. Therefore, the brittle star Amphiura filiformis and the starfish Echinaster sepositus were here used to comparatively investigate the main repair phase events after injury as well as the presence and expression of immune system and extracellular matrix (i.e. collagen) molecules using both microscopy and molecular tools. Our results showed that emergency reaction and re-epithelialisation are similar in both echinoderm models, being faster and more effective than in mammals. Moreover, in comparison to the latter, both echinoderms showed delayed and less abundant collagen deposition at the wound site (absence of fibrosis). The gene expression patterns of molecules related to the immune response, such as Ese-fib-like (starfishes) and Afi-ficolin (brittle stars), were described for the first time during echinoderm regeneration providing promising starting points to investigate the immune system role in these regeneration models. Overall, the similarities in repair events and timing within the echinoderms and the differences with what has been reported in mammals suggest that effective repair processes in echinoderms play an important role for their subsequent ability to regenerate. Targeted molecular and functional analyses will shed light on the evolution of these abilities in the deuterostomian lineage.

PubMed ID: 29291979
PMC ID: PMC7274842
Article link: Dev Biol
Grant support: [+]

Genes referenced: ehfl LOC100892061 LOC581907

References [+] :
Abrams, Prolyl 4-hydroxylase alpha-related proteins in Drosophila melanogaster: tissue-specific embryonic expression of the 99F8-9 cluster. 2002, Pubmed