ECB-ART-31226J Biol Chem 1992 Aug 05;26722:15530-6.
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Changes in rates of protein synthesis and eukaryotic initiation factor-4 inhibitory activity in cell-free translation systems of sea urchin eggs and early cleavage stage embryos.
The characteristics of cell-free translation systems prepared from unfertilized eggs and early cleavage stage embryos of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, closely reflect the developmentally regulated changes in protein synthesis initiation observed in vivo. Cell-free translation systems prepared over the first 0-6 h following fertilization show gradually increasing activities, mimicking the changes observed in vivo. The mechanisms underlying these increases are complex and occur at several levels. One factor contributing to the rise in protein synthetic rate is the gradual increase in eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)-4 activity. This is correlated with the progressive inactivation of an inhibitor of eIF-4 function, which can be reactivated by in vitro manipulations. The relatively slow activation of eIF-4 follows similar kinetics to the increased utilization of maternal mRNA and ribosomes, in contrast to the rapid rise in maternal mRNA activation, and the increase in eIF-2B activity. This slow release from eIF-4 inhibition following a rapid release from eIF-2B inhibition and increased mRNA availability is reflected in the pattern of initiator tRNA binding to the small ribosomal subunit observed in cell-free translation systems. In translation systems from unfertilized eggs, initiator tRNA is unable to interact with the small ribosomal subunit, consistent with an initial block in both eIF-2B and eIF-4 activity. In translation systems from 30-min embryos, 48 S preinitiation complexes accumulate, reflecting the release from inhibition of mRNA availability and eIF-2B activity, but continued low activity of eIF-4. The accumulation of initiator tRNA in 48 S preinitiation complexes disappears gradually in translation systems from later embryos, as eIF-4 is slowly released from inhibition.
PubMed ID: 1639792
Genes referenced: LOC100887844 LOC115919910