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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=(((((((((echinoderm) AND developmental biology) OR strongylocentrotus purpuratus) OR patiria miniata) OR lytechinus variegatus) OR eucidaris tribuloides) OR parastichopus parvimensis) OR ophiothrix apiculata) OR allocentrotus fragilis) OR strongylocentrotus franciscanus AND ( ( Humans[Mesh] OR Animals[Mesh:noexp] ) ) AND ("last 5 years"[PDat])
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Short-term variation of abundance of the purple sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816), subject to harvesting in northern Portugal.

Tue, 03/24/2020 - 22:34
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Short-term variation of abundance of the purple sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816), subject to harvesting in northern Portugal.

Mar Environ Res. 2018 Oct;141:247-254

Authors: Bertocci I, Blanco A, Franco JN, Fernández-Boo S, Arenas F

Abstract
Paracentrotus lividus is a common and intensely harvested sea urchin at several European locations, including the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. The increasing human pressure on this resource due to the growing demand and market value of sea urchin gonads as seafood raises concerns on the ecological sustainability of present fisheries, which are showing a technological improvement and an expansion towards previously non-harvested areas. We examined the abundance of P. lividus of both commercial and non-commercial size before, during and after the harvesting season (from October to April) in the rocky shallow subtidal habitat along the northern Portuguese coast. The abundance of commercial (≥50 mm in test diameter) P. lividus individuals increased in the harvesting season, but drastically dropped by about 90% in the after-harvesting period. Such a pattern was consistent among three rocky shores spanning about 65 km of coast. The multivariate population structure and most size classes of non-commercial sea urchins did not differ depending on the period. The only exception was Class 4 (test diameter between 30 and 40 mm), which was more abundant in the harvesting than in the before- and, further, the after-harvesting period, but only at one shore. Very small (Class 1, test diameter below 10 mm) urchins were never found. The present findings suggest that human harvesting may cause considerable reductions in the abundance of target P. lividus, but that such an effect would not be evident concomitantly with harvesting, but in the subsequent period. Even if just under a precautionary principle, protection strategies focused on sea urchin populations and the harvesting period are advisable to contribute to maintain a sustainable local fishery of P. lividus populations that are likely to be negatively affected also by other natural and anthropogenic perturbations.

PMID: 30249457 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Skeletal development in the sea urchin relies upon protein families that contain intrinsic disorder, aggregation-prone, and conserved globular interactive domains.

Thu, 03/12/2020 - 22:06
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Skeletal development in the sea urchin relies upon protein families that contain intrinsic disorder, aggregation-prone, and conserved globular interactive domains.

PLoS One. 2019;14(10):e0222068

Authors: Pendola M, Jain G, Evans JS

Abstract
The formation of the sea urchin spicule skeleton requires the participation of hydrogel-forming protein families that regulate mineral nucleation and nanoparticle assembly processes that give rise to the spicule. However, the structure and molecular behavior of these proteins is not well established, and thus our ability to understand this process is hampered. We embarked on a study of sea urchin spicule proteins using a combination of biophysical and bioinformatics techniques. Our biophysical findings indicate that recombinant variants of the two most studied spicule matrix proteins, SpSM50 and SpSM30B/C (S. purpuratus) have a conformational landscape that include a C-terminal random coil/intrinsically disordered MAPQG sequence coupled to a conserved, folded N-terminal C-type lectin-like (CTLL) domain, with SpSM50 > SpSM30B/C with regard to intrinsic disorder. Both proteins possess solvent-accessible unfolded MAQPG sequence regions where Asn, Gln, and Arg residues may be accessible for protein hydrogel interactions with water molecules. Our bioinformatics study included seven other spicule matrix proteins where we note similarities between these proteins and rare, unusual proteins that possess folded and unfolded traits. Moreover, spicule matrix proteins possess three types of sequences: intrinsically disordered, amyloid-like, and folded protein-protein interactive. Collectively these reactive domains would be capable of driving protein assembly and hydrogel formation. Interestingly, three types of global conformations are predicted for the nine member protein set, wherein we note variations in the arrangement of intrinsically disordered and interactive globular domains. These variations may reflect species-specific requirements for spiculogenesis. We conclude that the molecular landscape of spicule matrix protein families enables them to function as hydrogelators, nucleators, and assemblers of mineral nanoparticles.

PMID: 31574084 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Distinct transcriptional regulation of Nanos2 in the germ line and soma by the Wnt and delta/notch pathways.

Thu, 02/27/2020 - 20:08
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Distinct transcriptional regulation of Nanos2 in the germ line and soma by the Wnt and delta/notch pathways.

Dev Biol. 2019 08 01;452(1):34-42

Authors: Oulhen N, Swartz SZ, Wang L, Wikramanayake A, Wessel GM

Abstract
Specification of the primordial germ cells (PGCs) is essential for sexually reproducing animals. Although the mechanisms of PGC specification are diverse between organisms, the RNA binding protein Nanos is consistently required in the germ line in all species tested. How Nanos is selectively expressed in the germ line, however, remains largely elusive. We report that in sea urchin embryos, the early expression of Nanos2 in the PGCs requires the maternal Wnt pathway. During gastrulation, however, Nanos2 expression expands into adjacent somatic mesodermal cells and this secondary Nanos expression instead requires Delta/Notch signaling through the forkhead family member FoxY. Each of these transcriptional regulators were tested by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis and found to directly interact with a DNA locus upstream of Nanos2. Given the conserved importance of Nanos in germ line specification, and the derived character of the micromeres and small micromeres in the sea urchin, we propose that the ancestral mechanism of Nanos2 expression in echinoderms was by induction in mesodermal cells during gastrulation.

PMID: 31075220 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Effects of three zinc-containing sunscreens on development of purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) embryos.

Fri, 02/21/2020 - 19:38
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Effects of three zinc-containing sunscreens on development of purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) embryos.

Aquat Toxicol. 2020 Jan;218:105355

Authors: Cunningham B, Torres-Duarte C, Cherr G, Adams N

Abstract
The growing popularity of physical sunscreens will lead to an increased release of ingredients from zinc oxide (ZnO) sunscreens into marine environments. Though zinc (Zn) is a necessary micronutrient in the ocean, greater than natural Zn concentrations may be released into marine environments by use of sunscreens. The extent of the consequences of this addition of Zn to the ocean are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of materials released by ZnO- sunscreens on the development of California purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Embryos incubated in various concentrations of Zn (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/L), the sources of which included zinc-containing compounds: ZnO and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4); and ZnO sunscreens: All Good, Badger, and Raw Elements brands. Based on EC50 values, ZnO-containing sunscreens were slightly, but not significantly, more toxic than ZnO and ZnSO4, suggesting that sunscreens may release additional unknown materials that are detrimental to sea urchin embryo development. All concentrations of Zn-exposure resulted in significant malformations (skeletal abnormality, stage arrest, axis determination disruption), which were identified using light and fluorescence confocal microscopy. The concentration of Zn2+ internalized by the developing embryos correlated positively with the concentration of Zn in seawater. Additionally, exposure to both ZnO sunscreens and ZnO and ZnSO4 at 1 mg/L Zn, significantly increased calcein-AM (CAM) accumulation, indicating decreased multidrug resistant (MDR) transporter activity. This is one of the first studies documenting ZnO-containing sunscreens release high concentrations of Zn that are internalized by and have detrimental effects on aquatic organisms.

PMID: 31790937 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

The HCN channel voltage sensor undergoes a large downward motion during hyperpolarization.

Thu, 02/20/2020 - 19:38
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The HCN channel voltage sensor undergoes a large downward motion during hyperpolarization.

Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2019 08;26(8):686-694

Authors: Dai G, Aman TK, DiMaio F, Zagotta WN

Abstract
Voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) contain positively charged residues within the S4 helix of the voltage-sensing domain (VSD) that are displaced in response to changes in transmembrane voltage, promoting conformational changes that open the pore. Pacemaker hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are unique among VGICs because their open probability is increased by membrane hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. Here we measured the precise movement of the S4 helix of a sea urchin HCN channel using transition metal ion fluorescence resonance energy transfer (tmFRET). We show that the S4 undergoes a substantial (~10 Å) downward movement in response to membrane hyperpolarization. Furthermore, by applying distance constraints determined from tmFRET experiments to Rosetta modeling, we reveal that the carboxy-terminal part of the S4 helix exhibits an unexpected tilting motion during hyperpolarization activation. These data provide a long-sought glimpse of the hyperpolarized state of a functioning VSD and also a framework for understanding the dynamics of reverse gating in HCN channels.

PMID: 31285608 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Transcriptome sequencing reveals phagocytosis as the main immune response in the pathogen-challenged sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

Sat, 02/08/2020 - 19:11
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Transcriptome sequencing reveals phagocytosis as the main immune response in the pathogen-challenged sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2019 Nov;94:780-791

Authors: Zhang W, Wang Z, Leng X, Jiang H, Liu L, Li C, Chang Y

Abstract
The clarification of host immune responses to causative bacteria of spotting disease in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius is vital to preventing and controlling this disease, especially to selective breeding for disease resistance. For this purpose, sea urchins were challenged with the causative bacterium Vibrio sp. to obtain spotting diseased and undiseased samples. We conducted next-generation sequencing to assess the key genes/pathways in control (CG), diseased (DG), and undiseased (UG) groups. A total of 454.1 million clean reads were obtained and assembled into 23,899 UniGenes with an N50 of 1359 bp, with 86.11% of them matching the genome sequence of the sea urchin S. purpuratus. A total of 8415 UniGenes were mapped to the non-redundant database. Salmon expression analysis revealed 725 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among CG, DG, and UG. These DEGs were enriched into 72 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including a core set of immune correlated pathways notably in the phagosome, vitamin digestion and absorption, Wnt signaling, and Notch signaling pathways. DG was evidently upregulated in these immune pathways and could enhance phagocytosis directly or indirectly. Thus, phagocytosis was the main coelomic cellular immune response in S. intermedius challenged by spotting disease causative bacterium. The expression patterns of 10 DEGs were confirmed via RT-qPCR, and the expression levels were consistent with the results of RNA-seq. Furthermore, 9899 SSRs were identified, and 123,692, 151,827, and 114,368 candidate SNPs were identified from CG, DG, and UG, respectively. These results provide basic information for our understanding of sea urchin antibacterial immunity.

PMID: 31585247 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Effects of sublethal Cd, Zn, and mixture exposures on antioxidant defense and oxidative stress parameters in early life stages of the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

Thu, 02/06/2020 - 19:08
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Effects of sublethal Cd, Zn, and mixture exposures on antioxidant defense and oxidative stress parameters in early life stages of the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

Aquat Toxicol. 2019 Dec;217:105338

Authors: Klein RD, Nogueira LS, Domingos-Moreira FXV, Gomes Costa P, Bianchini A, Wood CM

Abstract
Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated during the first 72 h of embryonic development of purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus continuously exposed to control conditions, to cadmium alone (Cd, 30 μg/L), to zinc alone (Zn, 9 μg/L) or to a Cd (28 μg/L) plus Zn (9 μg/L) mixture. These sublethal concentrations represent ∼ 10% of the acute EC50. Bioaccumulation, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), total glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were analyzed at 24 h (blastula), 48 h (gastrula), and 72 h (pluteus) stages of development. Zinc (an essential metal) was well-regulated, whereas Cd (non-essential) bioaccumulated and whole-body [Cd] increased from blastula to pluteus stage in sea urchin larvae. In controls, ACAP progressively declined from 24 h to 72 h, while LPO reciprocally increased, but other parameters did not change. Cd alone was more potent than Zn alone as a pro-oxidant, with the major effects being decreases in SOD activity and parallel increases in LPO throughout development; GST activity also increased at 24 h. Zn alone caused only biphasic disturbances of ACAP. In all cases, the simultaneous presence of the other metal prevented the effects, and there was no instance where the oxidative stress response in the presence of the Cd/Zn mixture was greater than in the presence of either Cd or Zn alone. Therefore the sublethal effects of joint exposures were always less than additive or even protective, in agreement with classical toxicity data. Furthermore, our results indicate that SOD and Zn can play important roles in protecting sea urchin embryos against Cd-induced lipid peroxidation.

PMID: 31711008 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

The evolution of a new cell type was associated with competition for a signaling ligand.

Thu, 02/06/2020 - 19:08
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The evolution of a new cell type was associated with competition for a signaling ligand.

PLoS Biol. 2019 09;17(9):e3000460

Authors: Ettensohn CA, Adomako-Ankomah A

Abstract
There is presently a very limited understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of new cell types. The skeleton-forming primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) of euechinoid sea urchins, derived from the micromeres of the 16-cell embryo, are an example of a recently evolved cell type. All adult echinoderms have a calcite-based endoskeleton, a synapomorphy of the Ambulacraria. Only euechinoids have a micromere-PMC lineage, however, which evolved through the co-option of the adult skeletogenic program into the embryo. During normal development, PMCs alone secrete the embryonic skeleton. Other mesoderm cells, known as blastocoelar cells (BCs), have the potential to produce a skeleton, but a PMC-derived signal ordinarily prevents these cells from expressing a skeletogenic fate and directs them into an alternative developmental pathway. Recently, it was shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling plays an important role in PMC differentiation and is part of a conserved program of skeletogenesis among echinoderms. Here, we report that VEGF signaling, acting through ectoderm-derived VEGF3 and its cognate receptor, VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-10-Ig, is also essential for the deployment of the skeletogenic program in BCs. This VEGF-dependent program includes the activation of aristaless-like homeobox 1 (alx1), a conserved transcriptional regulator of skeletogenic specification across echinoderms and an example of a "terminal selector" gene that controls cell identity. We show that PMCs control BC fate by sequestering VEGF3, thereby preventing activation of alx1 and the downstream skeletogenic network in BCs. Our findings provide an example of the regulation of early embryonic cell fates by direct competition for a secreted signaling ligand, a developmental mechanism that has not been widely recognized. Moreover, they reveal that a novel cell type evolved by outcompeting other embryonic cell lineages for an essential signaling ligand that regulates the expression of a gene controlling cell identity.

PMID: 31532765 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed