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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=(((((((((echinoderm) AND developmental biology) OR strongylocentrotus purpuratus) OR patiria miniata) OR lytechinus variegatus) OR eucidaris tribuloides) OR parastichopus parvimensis) OR ophiothrix apiculata) OR allocentrotus fragilis) OR strongylocentrotus franciscanus AND ( ( Humans[Mesh] OR Animals[Mesh:noexp] ) ) AND ("last 5 years"[PDat])
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Topsoil and urban dust pollution and toxicity in Taranto (southern Italy) industrial area and in a residential district.

Tue, 02/12/2019 - 11:45
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Topsoil and urban dust pollution and toxicity in Taranto (southern Italy) industrial area and in a residential district.

Environ Monit Assess. 2018 Dec 28;191(1):43

Authors: Trifuoggi M, Pagano G, Oral R, Gravina M, Toscanesi M, Mozzillo M, Siciliano A, Burić P, Lyons DM, Palumbo A, Thomas PJ, D'Ambra L, Crisci A, Guida M, Tommasi F

Abstract
Adverse environmental conditions in the Taranto area (southern Italy) were investigated in studies of air, marine sediment, and human health. The present study aimed at providing unprecedented information on soil pollution and toxicity in a set of sites around recognized pollution sources in the Taranto area, since previous studies were focused on marine or air pollution, or on human health effects. The investigated area included a steel foundry and a power plant, as well as some sites located in an adjacent neighborhood. Surface soil samples and urban dust were collected and submitted to inorganic and organic analyses and tested for toxicity in two invertebrate bioassay models; a sea urchin (Sphaerechinus granularis) and an annelid (Caenorhabditis elegans). Inorganic analysis was carried out using ICP-MS for elemental composition for a total of 34 elements, whose levels were evaluated as a function of bioassay data analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA). Other analyses included asbestos search by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and organic analysis for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic compounds (C10-C40). Toxicity bioassays were carried out on a sea urchin (Sphaerechinus granularis), and an annelid (Caenorhabditis elegans). Sea urchin bioassays evaluated effects of topsoil or street dust sample exposures (0.1 to 0.5% dry wt/vol) on developing embryos and on sperm, and scored as (a) % developmental defects, (b) inhibition of fertilization success and offspring damage, and (c) frequencies of mitotic aberrations. C. elegans mortality assay displayed significant toxicity associated with soil samples. The overall effects of samples showed very high toxicity at four out of nine sites. These effects were consistent with the highest levels measured for metals and PAHs. Further studies of health effects related to dust exposures in residential areas are warranted. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

PMID: 30593597 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Meis transcription factor maintains the neurogenic ectoderm and regulates the anterior-posterior patterning in embryos of a sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus.

Sat, 02/09/2019 - 11:37
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Meis transcription factor maintains the neurogenic ectoderm and regulates the anterior-posterior patterning in embryos of a sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus.

Dev Biol. 2018 12 01;444(1):1-8

Authors: Yaguchi J, Yamazaki A, Yaguchi S

Abstract
Precise body axis formation is an essential step in the development of multicellular organisms, for most of which the molecular gradient and/or specifically biased localization of cell-fate determinants in eggs play important roles. In sea urchins, however, any biased proteins and mRNAs have not yet been identified in the egg except for vegetal cortex molecules, suggesting that sea urchin development is mostly regulated by uniformly distributed maternal molecules with contributions to axis formation that are not well characterized. Here, we describe that the maternal Meis transcription factor regulates anterior-posterior axis formation through maintenance of the most anterior territory in embryos of a sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. Loss-of-function experiments revealed that Meis is intrinsically required for maintenance of the anterior neuroectoderm specifier foxQ2 after hatching and, consequently, the morphant lost anterior neuroectoderm characteristics. In addition, the expression patterns of univin and VEGF, the lateral ectoderm markers, and the mesenchyme-cell pattern shifted toward the anterior side in Meis morphants more than they did in control embryos, indicating that Meis contributes to the precise anteroposterior patterning by regulating the anterior neuroectodermal fate.

PMID: 30266259 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Anticoagulant and Antithrombotic Properties of Three Structurally Correlated Sea Urchin Sulfated Glycans and Their Low-Molecular-Weight Derivatives.

Tue, 02/05/2019 - 11:20
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Anticoagulant and Antithrombotic Properties of Three Structurally Correlated Sea Urchin Sulfated Glycans and Their Low-Molecular-Weight Derivatives.

Mar Drugs. 2018 Aug 30;16(9):

Authors: Vasconcelos AA, Sucupira ID, Guedes AL, Queiroz IN, Frattani FS, Fonseca RJ, Pomin VH

Abstract
The anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties of three structurally correlated sea urchin-derived 3-linked sulfated α-glycans and their low molecular-weight derivatives were screened comparatively through various in vitro and in vivo methods. These methods include activated partial thromboplastin time, the inhibitory activity of antithrombin over thrombin and factor Xa, venous antithrombosis, the inhibition of platelet aggregation, the activation of factor XII, and bleeding. While the 2-sulfated fucan from Strongylocentrotus franciscanus was observed to be poorly active in most assays, the 4-sulfated fucan from Lytechinus variegatus, the 2-sulfated galactan from Echinometra lucunter and their derivatives showed multiple effects. All marine compounds showed no capacity to activate factor XII and similar low bleeding tendencies regardless of the dose concentrations used to achieve the highest antithrombotic effect observed. The 2-sulfated galactan showed the best combination of results. Our work improves the background about the structure-function relationship of the marine sulfated glycans in anticoagulation and antithrombosis. Besides confirming the negative effect of the 2-sulfated fucose and the positive effect of the 2-sulfated galactose on anticoagulation in vitro, our results also demonstrate the importance of this set of structural requirements on antithrombosis in vivo, and further support the involvement of high-molecular weight and 4-sulfated fucose in both activities.

PMID: 30200211 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

From genome to anatomy: The architecture and evolution of the skeletogenic gene regulatory network of sea urchins and other echinoderms.

Fri, 02/01/2019 - 11:09
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From genome to anatomy: The architecture and evolution of the skeletogenic gene regulatory network of sea urchins and other echinoderms.

Genesis. 2018 10;56(10):e23253

Authors: Shashikant T, Khor JM, Ettensohn CA

Abstract
The skeletogenic gene regulatory network (GRN) of sea urchins and other echinoderms is one of the most intensively studied transcriptional networks in any developing organism. As such, it serves as a preeminent model of GRN architecture and evolution. This review summarizes our current understanding of this developmental network. We describe in detail the most comprehensive model of the skeletogenic GRN, one developed for the euechinoid sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, including its initial deployment by maternal inputs, its elaboration and stabilization through regulatory gene interactions, and its control of downstream effector genes that directly drive skeletal morphogenesis. We highlight recent comparative studies that have leveraged the euechinoid GRN model to examine the evolution of skeletogenic programs in diverse echinoderms, studies that have revealed both conserved and divergent features of skeletogenesis within the phylum. Last, we summarize the major insights that have emerged from analysis of the structure and evolution of the echinoderm skeletogenic GRN and identify key, unresolved questions as a guide for future work.

PMID: 30264451 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Network model predicts that CatSper is the main Ca2+ channel in the regulation of sea urchin sperm motility.

Fri, 01/04/2019 - 09:45
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Network model predicts that CatSper is the main Ca2+ channel in the regulation of sea urchin sperm motility.

Sci Rep. 2017 06 26;7(1):4236

Authors: Espinal-Enríquez J, Priego-Espinosa DA, Darszon A, Beltrán C, Martínez-Mekler G

Abstract
Spermatozoa sea urchin swimming behaviour is regulated by small peptides from the egg outer envelope. Speract, such a peptide, after binding to its receptor in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus sperm flagella, triggers a signaling pathway that culminates with a train of intracellular calcium oscillations, correlated with changes in sperm swimming pattern. This pathway has been widely studied but not fully characterized. Recent work on Arbacia punctulata sea urchin spermatozoa has documented the presence of the Ca2+ CatSper channel in their flagella and its involvement in chemotaxis. However, if other calcium channels participate in chemotaxis remains unclear. Here, based on an experimentally-backed logical network model, we conclude that CatSper is fundamental in the S. purpuratus speract-activated sea urchin sperm signaling cascade, although other Ca2+ channels could still be relevant. We also present for the first time experimental corroboration of its active presence in S. purpuratus sperm flagella. We argue, prompted by in silico knock-out calculations, that CatSper is the main generator of calcium oscillations in the signaling pathway and that other calcium channels, if present, have a complementary role. The approach adopted here allows us to unveil processes, which are hard to detect exclusively by experimental procedures.

PMID: 28652586 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed