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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=(((((((((echinoderm) AND developmental biology) OR strongylocentrotus purpuratus) OR patiria miniata) OR lytechinus variegatus) OR eucidaris tribuloides) OR parastichopus parvimensis) OR ophiothrix apiculata) OR allocentrotus fragilis) OR strongylocentrotus franciscanus AND ( ( Humans[Mesh] OR Animals[Mesh:noexp] ) ) AND ("last 5 years"[PDat])
Updated: 22 hours 32 min ago

Molecular characterization and gene expression patterns of retinoid receptors, in normal and regenerating tissues of the sea cucumber, Holothuria glaberrima.

Sun, 04/15/2018 - 16:31
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Molecular characterization and gene expression patterns of retinoid receptors, in normal and regenerating tissues of the sea cucumber, Holothuria glaberrima.

Gene. 2018 May 15;654:23-35

Authors: Viera-Vera J, García-Arrarás JE

Abstract
Retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR) are ligand-mediated transcription factors that synchronize intricate signaling networks in metazoans. Dimer formation between these two nuclear receptors mediates the recruitment of co-regulatory complexes coordinating the progression of signaling cascades during developmental and regenerative events. In the present study we identified and characterized the receptors for retinoic acid in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima; a model system capable of regenerative organogenesis during adulthood. Molecular characterizations revealed the presence of three isoforms of RAR and two of RXR as a consequence of alternative splicing events. Various analyses including: primary structure sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, protein domain prediction, and multiple sequence alignment further confirmed their identity. Semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis of each receptor isoform herein identified showed that the retinoid receptors are expressed in all tissues sampled: the mesenteries, respiratory trees, muscles, gonads, and the digestive tract. During regenerative organogenesis two of the receptors (RAR-L and RXR-T) showed differential expression in the posterior segment while RAR-S is differentially expressed in the anterior segment of the intestine. This work presents the first description of the components relaying the signaling for retinoic acid within this model system.

PMID: 29425825 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Fundamental aspects of arm repair phase in two echinoderm models.

Sun, 04/15/2018 - 16:31
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Fundamental aspects of arm repair phase in two echinoderm models.

Dev Biol. 2018 01 15;433(2):297-309

Authors: Ferrario C, Ben Khadra Y, Czarkwiani A, Zakrzewski A, Martinez P, Colombo G, Bonasoro F, Candia Carnevali MD, Oliveri P, Sugni M

Abstract
Regeneration is a post-embryonic developmental process that ensures complete morphological and functional restoration of lost body parts. The repair phase is a key step for the effectiveness of the subsequent regenerative process: in vertebrates, efficient re-epithelialisation, rapid inflammatory/immune response and post-injury tissue remodelling are fundamental aspects for the success of this phase, their impairment leading to an inhibition or total prevention of regeneration. Among deuterostomes, echinoderms display a unique combination of striking regenerative abilities and diversity of useful experimental models, although still largely unexplored. Therefore, the brittle star Amphiura filiformis and the starfish Echinaster sepositus were here used to comparatively investigate the main repair phase events after injury as well as the presence and expression of immune system and extracellular matrix (i.e. collagen) molecules using both microscopy and molecular tools. Our results showed that emergency reaction and re-epithelialisation are similar in both echinoderm models, being faster and more effective than in mammals. Moreover, in comparison to the latter, both echinoderms showed delayed and less abundant collagen deposition at the wound site (absence of fibrosis). The gene expression patterns of molecules related to the immune response, such as Ese-fib-like (starfishes) and Afi-ficolin (brittle stars), were described for the first time during echinoderm regeneration providing promising starting points to investigate the immune system role in these regeneration models. Overall, the similarities in repair events and timing within the echinoderms and the differences with what has been reported in mammals suggest that effective repair processes in echinoderms play an important role for their subsequent ability to regenerate. Targeted molecular and functional analyses will shed light on the evolution of these abilities in the deuterostomian lineage.

PMID: 29291979 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Nodal and BMP expression during the transition to pentamery in the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma: insights into patterning the enigmatic echinoderm body plan.

Wed, 04/11/2018 - 16:22
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Nodal and BMP expression during the transition to pentamery in the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma: insights into patterning the enigmatic echinoderm body plan.

BMC Dev Biol. 2017 Feb 13;17(1):4

Authors: Koop D, Cisternas P, Morris VB, Strbenac D, Yang JY, Wray GA, Byrne M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of the unusual echinoderm pentameral body plan and their likeness to mechanisms underlying the development of the bilateral plans of other deuterostomes are of interest in tracing body plan evolution. In this first study of the spatial expression of genes associated with Nodal and BMP2/4 signalling during the transition to pentamery in sea urchins, we investigate Heliocidaris erythrogramma, a species that provides access to the developing adult rudiment within days of fertilization.
RESULTS: BMP2/4, and the putative downstream genes, Six1/2, Eya, Tbx2/3 and Msx were expressed in the earliest morphological manifestation of pentamery during development, the five hydrocoele lobes. The formation of the vestibular ectoderm, the specialized region overlying the left coelom that forms adult ectoderm, involved the expression of putative Nodal target genes Chordin, Gsc and BMP2/4 and putative BMP2/4 target genes Dlx, Msx and Tbx. The expression of Nodal, Lefty and Pitx2 in the right ectoderm, and Pitx2 in the right coelom, was as previously observed in other sea urchins.
CONCLUSION: That genes associated with Nodal and BMP2/4 signalling are expressed in the hydrocoele lobes, indicates that they have a role in the developmental transition to pentamery, contributing to our understanding of how the most unusual body plan in the Bilateria may have evolved. We suggest that the Nodal and BMP2/4 signalling cascades might have been duplicated or split during the evolution to pentamery.

PMID: 28193178 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Nodal induces sequential restriction of germ cell factors during primordial germ cell specification.

Tue, 04/10/2018 - 16:20
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Nodal induces sequential restriction of germ cell factors during primordial germ cell specification.

Development. 2018 01 22;145(2):

Authors: Fresques TM, Wessel GM

Abstract
Specification of the germ cell lineage is required for sexual reproduction in animals. The mechanism of germ cell specification varies among animals but roughly clusters into either inherited or inductive mechanisms. The inductive mechanism, the use of cell-cell interactions for germ cell specification, appears to be the ancestral mechanism in animal phylogeny, yet the pathways responsible for this process are only recently surfacing. Here, we show that germ cell factors in the sea star initially are present broadly, then become restricted dorsally and then in the left side of the embryo where the germ cells form a posterior enterocoel. We find that Nodal signaling is required for the restriction of two germ cell factors, Nanos and Vasa, during the early development of this animal. We learned that Nodal inhibits germ cell factor accumulation in three ways including: inhibition of specific transcription, degradation of specific mRNAs and inhibition of tissue morphogenesis. These results document a signaling mechanism required for the sequential restriction of germ cell factors, which causes a specific set of embryonic cells to become the primordial germ cells.

PMID: 29358213 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Identification of neural transcription factors required for the differentiation of three neuronal subtypes in the sea urchin embryo.

Fri, 04/06/2018 - 16:17
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Identification of neural transcription factors required for the differentiation of three neuronal subtypes in the sea urchin embryo.

Dev Biol. 2018 03 15;435(2):138-149

Authors: Slota LA, McClay DR

Abstract
Correct patterning of the nervous system is essential for an organism's survival and complex behavior. Embryologists have used the sea urchin as a model for decades, but our understanding of sea urchin nervous system patterning is incomplete. Previous histochemical studies identified multiple neurotransmitters in the pluteus larvae of several sea urchin species. However, little is known about how, where and when neural subtypes are differentially specified during development. Here, we examine the molecular mechanisms of neuronal subtype specification in 3 distinct neural subtypes in the Lytechinus variegatus larva. We show that these subtypes are specified through Delta/Notch signaling and identify a different transcription factor required for the development of each neural subtype. Our results show achaete-scute and neurogenin are proneural for the serotonergic neurons of the apical organ and cholinergic neurons of the ciliary band, respectively. We also show that orthopedia is not proneural but is necessary for the differentiation of the cholinergic/catecholaminergic postoral neurons. Interestingly, these transcription factors are used similarly during vertebrate neurogenesis. We believe this study is a starting point for building a neural gene regulatory network in the sea urchin and for finding conserved deuterostome neurogenic mechanisms.

PMID: 29331498 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Understanding trophic relationships among Caribbean sea urchins.

Wed, 04/04/2018 - 16:16
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Understanding trophic relationships among Caribbean sea urchins.

Rev Biol Trop. 2016 Jun;64(2):837-48

Authors: Rodríguez-Barreras R, Cuevas E, Cabanillas-Terán N, Branoff B

Abstract
The species Echinometra lucunter, Echinometra viridis, Lytechinus variegatus, Tripneustes ventricosus, and Diadema antillarum are the most common sea urchins of littoral habitats in the Caribbean. T. ventricosus and L. variegatus are associated with seagrass beds, while the other three species usually inhabit hardground substrates. Food preferences of these species are well documented and they are commonly accepted as being primarily herbivorous-omnivorous; nevertheless, few of them have previously been characterized isotopically. We used this approach for assessing the isotopic characterization of five echinoids. We established the trophic position of two groups of co-occurring species and quantified the contribution of food resources in the diet of Echinometra lucunter, considered the most common sea urchin in the Caribbean region. The species T. ventricosus and D. antillarum showed the highest values of δ15N. Sea urchins exhibited similar values of δ13C varying from -11.6 ± 0.63 to -10.4 ± 0.99%. The echinoid E. lucunter displayed the lowest values of carbon, from -15.40 ± 0.76%. Significant differences among species were found for δ15N and δ13C. Seaweed communities exhibited no differences among sites for overall δ15N (F= 1.300, df= 3, p= 0.301), but we found spatial differences for δ13C (F= 7.410, df= 3, p= 0.001). The ellipse-based metrics of niche width analysis found that the hardground biotope species (D. antillarum, E. lucunter, and E. viridis) did not overlap each other. Similar results were obtained for the co-occurring species of the seagrass biotope; however, the distance between these species was closer than that of the hardground biotope species. The Bayesian mixing models run for E. lucunter at all four localities found differences in food resources contribution. The algae D. menstrualis, C. crassa and B. triquetrum dominated in CGD; whereas C. nitens, Gracilaria spp., and D. caribaea represented the main contributor algae to the diet of E. lucunter at LQY. In Culebra Island, no dominance of any particular algae was detected in TMD, where six of the eight species exhibited a similar contribution. Similarities in δ15N between D. antillarum and T. ventricosus may hint towards a similar trophic level for these species, although T. ventricosus is widely accepted as an omnivore, while D. antillarum is considered a generalist herbivore. The lack of overlap among species in the two biotopes seems to indicate a resource partitioning strategy to avoid niche competition among co-occurring species.

PMID: 29451972 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

The small GTPase Arf6 regulates sea urchin morphogenesis.

Tue, 03/27/2018 - 16:06
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The small GTPase Arf6 regulates sea urchin morphogenesis.

Differentiation. 2017 May - Jun;95:31-43

Authors: Stepicheva NA, Dumas M, Kobi P, Donaldson JG, Song JL

Abstract
The small GTPase Arf6 is a conserved protein that is expressed in all metazoans. Arf6 remodels cytoskeletal actin and mediates membrane protein trafficking between the plasma membrane in its active form and endosomal compartments in its inactive form. While a rich knowledge exists for the cellular functions of Arf6, relatively little is known about its physiological role in development. This study examines the function of Arf6 in mediating cellular morphogenesis in early development. We dissect the function of Arf6 with a loss-of-function morpholino and constitutively active Arf6-Q67L construct. We focus on the two cell types that undergo active directed migration: the primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) that give rise to the sea urchin skeleton and endodermal cells that form the gut. Our results indicate that Arf6 plays an important role in skeleton formation and PMC migration, in part due to its ability to remodel actin. We also found that embryos injected with Arf6 morpholino have gastrulation defects and embryos injected with constitutively active Arf6 have endodermal cells detached from the gut epithelium with decreased junctional cadherin staining, indicating that Arf6 may mediate the recycling of cadherin. Thus, Arf6 impacts cells that undergo coordinated movement to form embryonic structures in the developing embryo.

PMID: 28188999 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Bioerosion by pit-forming, temperate-reef sea urchins: History, rates and broader implications.

Tue, 03/20/2018 - 16:01
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Bioerosion by pit-forming, temperate-reef sea urchins: History, rates and broader implications.

PLoS One. 2018;13(2):e0191278

Authors: Russell MP, Gibbs VK, Duwan E

Abstract
Sea urchins are dominant members of rocky temperate reefs around the world. They often occur in cavities within the rock, and fit so tightly, it is natural to assume they sculpted these "pits." However, there are no experimental data demonstrating they bore pits. If they do, what are the rates and consequences of bioerosion to nearshore systems? We sampled purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, from sites with four rock types, three sedimentary (two sandstones and one mudstone) and one metamorphic (granite). A year-long experiment showed urchins excavated depressions on sedimentary rocks in just months. The rate of pit formation varied with rock type and ranged from <5 yr for medium-grain sandstone to >100 yr for granite. In the field, there were differences in pit size and shapes of the urchins (height:diameter ratio). The pits were shallow and urchins flatter at the granite site, and the pits were deeper and urchins taller at the sedimentary sites. Although overall pit sizes were larger on mudstone than on sandstone, urchin size accounted for this difference. A second, short-term experiment, showed the primary mechanism for bioerosion was ingestion of the substratum. This experiment eliminated potential confounding factors of the year-long experiment and yielded higher bioerosion rates. Given the high densities of urchins, large amounts of rock can be converted to sediment over short time periods. Urchins on sandstone can excavate as much as 11.4 kg m-2 yr-1. On a broader geographic scale, sediment production can exceed 100 t ha-1 yr-1, and across their range, their combined bioerosion is comparable to the sediment load of many rivers. The phase shift between urchin barrens and kelp bed habitats in the North Pacific is controlled by the trophic cascade of sea otters. By limiting urchin populations, these apex predators also may indirectly control a substantial component of coastal rates of bioerosion.

PMID: 29466357 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Do Sperm Really Compete and Do Eggs Ever Have a Choice? Adult Distribution and Gamete Mixing Influence Sexual Selection, Sexual Conflict, and the Evolution of Gamete Recognition Proteins in the Sea.

Sun, 03/18/2018 - 16:00
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Do Sperm Really Compete and Do Eggs Ever Have a Choice? Adult Distribution and Gamete Mixing Influence Sexual Selection, Sexual Conflict, and the Evolution of Gamete Recognition Proteins in the Sea.

Am Nat. 2018 Jan;191(1):88-105

Authors: Levitan DR

Abstract
The evolution of gametic compatibility and the effectiveness of compatibility, within and across species, depend on whether sperm from different males directly compete for an egg and whether eggs ever have a choice. Direct sperm competition and egg choice depend on whether sperm from different males arrive at an egg in the brief interval between first sperm contact and fertilization. Although this process may be relevant for all sexually reproducing organisms, it is most easily examined in aquatic external fertilizers. When sperm are released into the sea, packets of seawater at the spatial scale relevant to single eggs might contain sperm from only one male, eliminating the potential for direct sperm competition and egg choice. Field experiments and a simple heuristic model examining the degree of sperm mixing for the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus indicate that degree of competitive fertilization depends on density and distribution of competing males and that the nature of this competition influences whether males with high- or low-affinity gamete recognition protein genotypes have higher reproductive success. These results provide a potential explanation for the generation and maintenance of variation in gamete recognition proteins and why effectiveness of conspecific sperm precedence can be density dependent.

PMID: 29244565 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Testing lagoonal sediments with early life stages of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana): An approach to assess sediment toxicity in the Venice Lagoon.

Thu, 03/15/2018 - 15:53
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Testing lagoonal sediments with early life stages of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana): An approach to assess sediment toxicity in the Venice Lagoon.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018 Jan;147:217-227

Authors: Picone M, Bergamin M, Delaney E, Ghirardini AV, Kusk KO

Abstract
The early-life stages of development of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa from egg to copepodite I is proposed as an endpoint for assessing sediment toxicity by exposing newly released eggs directly onto the sediment-water interface. A preliminary study of 5 sediment samples collected in the lagoon of Venice highlighted that the larval development rate (LDR) and the early-life stages (ELS) mortality endpoints with A. tonsa are more sensitive than the standard amphipod mortality test; moreover LDR resulted in a more reliable endpoint than ELS mortality, due to the interference of the sediment with the recovery of unhatched eggs and dead larvae. The LDR data collected in a definitive study of 48 sediment samples from the Venice Lagoon has been analysed together with the preliminary data to evaluate the statistical performances of the bioassay (among replicate variance and minimum significant difference between samples and control) and to investigate the possible correlation with sediment chemistry and physical properties. The results showed that statistical performances of the LDR test with A. tonsa correspond with the outcomes of other tests applied to the sediment-water interface (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryotoxicity test), sediments (Neanthes arenaceodentata survival and growth test) and porewater (S. purpuratus); the LDR endpoint did, however, show a slightly higher variance as compared with other tests used in the Lagoon of Venice, such as 10-d amphipod lethality test and larval development with sea urchin and bivalves embryos. Sediment toxicity data highlighted the high sensitivity and the clear ability of the larval development to discriminate among sediments characterized by different levels of contamination. The data of the definitive study evidenced that inhibition of the larval development was not affected by grain-size and the organic carbon content of the sediment; in contrast, a strong correlation between inhibition of the larval development and the sediment concentrations of some metals (Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn), acid-volatile sulphides (AVS), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was found. No correlation was found with DDTs, hexachlorobenzene and organotin compounds.

PMID: 28843531 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Genome-wide signals of positive selection in strongylocentrotid sea urchins.

Wed, 03/14/2018 - 15:52
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Genome-wide signals of positive selection in strongylocentrotid sea urchins.

BMC Genomics. 2017 Jul 21;18(1):555

Authors: Kober KM, Pogson GH

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Comparative genomics studies investigating the signals of positive selection among groups of closely related species are still rare and limited in taxonomic breadth. Such studies show great promise in advancing our knowledge about the proportion and the identity of genes experiencing diversifying selection. However, methodological challenges have led to high levels of false positives in past studies. Here, we use the well-annotated genome of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, as a reference to investigate the signals of positive selection at 6520 single-copy orthologs from nine sea urchin species belonging to the family Strongylocentrotidae paying careful attention to minimizing false positives.
RESULTS: We identified 1008 (15.5%) candidate positive selection genes (PSGs). Tests for positive selection along the nine terminal branches of the phylogeny identified 824 genes that showed lineage-specific adaptive diversification (1.67% of branch-sites tests performed). Positively selected codons were not enriched at exon borders or near regions containing missing data, suggesting a limited contribution of false positives caused by alignment or annotation errors. Alignments were validated at 10 loci with re-sequencing using Sanger methods. No differences were observed in the rates of synonymous substitution (d S), GC content, and codon bias between the candidate PSGs and those not showing positive selection. However, the candidate PSGs had 68% higher rates of nonsynonymous substitution (d N) and 33% lower levels of heterozygosity, consistent with selective sweeps and opposite to that expected by a relaxation of selective constraint. Although positive selection was identified at reproductive proteins and innate immunity genes, the strongest signals of adaptive diversification were observed at extracellular matrix proteins, cell adhesion molecules, membrane receptors, and ion channels. Many candidate PSGs have been widely implicated as targets of pathogen binding, inactivation, mimicry, or exploitation in other groups (notably mammals).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed the widespread action of positive selection across sea urchin genomes and allowed us to reject the possibility that annotation and alignment errors (including paralogs) were responsible for creating false signals of adaptive molecular divergence. The candidate PSGs identified in our study represent promising targets for future research into the selective agents responsible for their adaptive diversification and their contribution to speciation.

PMID: 28732465 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Lesions of Copper Toxicosis in Captive Marine Invertebrates With Comparisons to Normal Histology.

Thu, 03/08/2018 - 14:47
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Lesions of Copper Toxicosis in Captive Marine Invertebrates With Comparisons to Normal Histology.

Vet Pathol. 2016 May;53(3):648-58

Authors: LaDouceur EE, Wynne J, Garner MM, Nyaoke A, Keel MK

Abstract
Despite increasing concern for coral reef ecosystem health within the last decade, there is scant literature concerning the histopathology of diseases affecting the major constituents of coral reef ecosystems, particularly marine invertebrates. This study describes histologic findings in 6 species of marine invertebrates (California sea hare [Aplysia californica], purple sea urchin [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus], sunburst anemone [Anthopleura sola], knobby star [Pisaster giganteus], bat star [Asterina miniata], and brittle star [Ophiopteris papillosa]) with spontaneous copper toxicosis, 4 purple sea urchins with experimentally induced copper toxicosis, and 1 unexposed control of each species listed. The primary lesions in the California sea hare with copper toxicosis were branchial and nephridial necrosis. Affected echinoderms shared several histologic lesions, including epidermal necrosis and ulceration and increased numbers of coelomocytes within the water-vascular system. The sunburst anemone with copper toxicosis had necrosis of both epidermis and gastrodermis, as well as expulsion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis. In addition to the lesions attributed to copper toxicosis, our results describe normal microscopic features of these animals that may be useful for histopathologic assessment of marine invertebrates.

PMID: 26459519 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

IL17 factors are early regulators in the gut epithelium during inflammatory response to Vibrio in the sea urchin larva.

Fri, 02/23/2018 - 14:29
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IL17 factors are early regulators in the gut epithelium during inflammatory response to Vibrio in the sea urchin larva.

Elife. 2017 Apr 27;6:

Authors: Buckley KM, Ho ECH, Hibino T, Schrankel CS, Schuh NW, Wang G, Rast JP

Abstract
IL17 cytokines are central mediators of mammalian immunity. In vertebrates, these factors derive from diverse cellular sources. Sea urchins share a molecular heritage with chordates that includes the IL17 system. Here, we characterize the role of epithelial expression of IL17 in the larval gut-associated immune response. The purple sea urchin genome encodes 10 IL17 subfamilies (35 genes) and 2 IL17 receptors. Most of these subfamilies are conserved throughout echinoderms. Two IL17 subfamilies are sequentially strongly upregulated and attenuated in the gut epithelium in response to bacterial disturbance. IL17R1 signal perturbation results in reduced expression of several response genes including an IL17 subtype, indicating a potential feedback. A third IL17 subfamily is activated in adult immune cells indicating that expression in immune cells and epithelia is divided among families. The larva provides a tractable model to investigate the regulation and consequences of gut epithelial IL17 expression across the organism.

PMID: 28447937 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed