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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=(((((((((echinoderm) AND developmental biology) OR strongylocentrotus purpuratus) OR patiria miniata) OR lytechinus variegatus) OR eucidaris tribuloides) OR parastichopus parvimensis) OR ophiothrix apiculata) OR allocentrotus fragilis) OR strongylocentrotus franciscanus AND ( ( Humans[Mesh] OR Animals[Mesh:noexp] ) ) AND ("last 5 years"[PDat])
Updated: 23 hours 8 min ago

Rudolf A. Raff (1941-2019).

Fri, 06/14/2019 - 19:15
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Rudolf A. Raff (1941-2019).

Nat Ecol Evol. 2019 04;3(4):518-519

Authors: Wray GA, Haag ES

PMID: 30820042 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Bacterial artificial chromosomes as recombinant reporter constructs to investigate gene expression and regulation in echinoderms.

Sat, 06/08/2019 - 18:54
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Bacterial artificial chromosomes as recombinant reporter constructs to investigate gene expression and regulation in echinoderms.

Brief Funct Genomics. 2018 09 27;17(5):362-371

Authors: Buckley KM, Dong P, Cameron RA, Rast JP

Abstract
Genome sequences contain all the necessary information-both coding and regulatory sequences-to construct an organism. The developmental process translates this genomic information into a three-dimensional form. One interpretation of this translation process can be described using gene regulatory network (GRN) models, which are maps of interactions among regulatory gene products in time and space. As high throughput investigations reveal increasing complexity within these GRNs, it becomes apparent that efficient methods are required to test the necessity and sufficiency of regulatory interactions. One of the most complete GRNs for early development has been described in the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. This work has been facilitated by two resources: a well-annotated genome sequence and transgenes generated in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) constructs. BAC libraries played a central role in assembling the S. purpuratus genome sequence and continue to serve as platforms for generating reporter constructs for use in expression and regulatory analyses. Optically transparent echinoderm larvae are highly amenable to transgenic approaches and are therefore particularly well suited for experiments that rely on BAC-based reporter transgenes. Here, we discuss the experimental utility of BAC constructs in the context of understanding developmental processes in echinoderm embryos and larvae.

PMID: 29045542 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

A gut response.

Thu, 06/06/2019 - 18:46
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A gut response.

Elife. 2017 06 02;6:

Authors: Nicotra ML

Abstract
Unexpected findings from the immune system of sea urchin larvae potentially provide insights into immune signaling in ancestral animals.

PMID: 28574337 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Anteroposterior molecular registries in ectoderm of the echinus rudiment.

Tue, 06/04/2019 - 18:37
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Anteroposterior molecular registries in ectoderm of the echinus rudiment.

Dev Dyn. 2018 12;247(12):1297-1307

Authors: Adachi S, Niimi I, Sakai Y, Sato F, Minokawa T, Urata M, Sehara-Fujisawa A, Kobayashi I, Yamaguchi M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Echinoderms and hemichordates are sister taxa that both have larvae with tripartite coeloms. Hemichordates inherit the coelom plan and ectoderm from larvae, whereas echinoderms form the adult rudiment comprising rearranged coeloms and a vestibule that then develops into adult oral ectoderm. Molecular networks that control patterns of the ectoderm and the central nervous system along the anteroposterior (AP) axis are highly conserved between hemichordates and chordates, respectively. In echinoderms, however, little is known about the AP registry in the ectoderm.
RESULTS: We isolated ectodermal AP map genes from the sand dollar Peronella japonica and examined their expression. Comparative expression analyses showed that (1) P. japonica orthologs of hemichordate anterior markers are expressed in the larval apical plate, which degenerates during metamorphosis; (2) P. japonica orthologs of the medial markers are expressed in the ambulacral ectoderm of the rudiment; and (3) few P. japonica orthologs of the posterior markers are expressed in ectoderm.
CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that echinoids only inherit the ambulacral ectoderm from a common ambulacrarian ancestor, which largely corresponds to the collar ectoderm in hemichordates. The ectodermal AP registry provides insights into the AP axis and evolutionary processes of echinoderms from a common ambulacrarian ancestor. Developmental Dynamics 247:1297-1307, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PMID: 30394653 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Effects of ocean warming and acidification on fertilization success and early larval development in the green sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus.

Tue, 05/14/2019 - 17:15
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Effects of ocean warming and acidification on fertilization success and early larval development in the green sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus.

Mar Pollut Bull. 2019 Apr;141:70-78

Authors: Lenz B, Fogarty ND, Figueiredo J

Abstract
Ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the early life of many marine organisms, but their effects can be synergistic or antagonistic. This study assessed the combined effects of near-future (2100) ocean acidification (pH 7.8) and warming (+3 °C) on the fertilization, larval development and growth of the green sea urchin, Lytechinus variegatus, common in tropical reefs of Florida and the Caribbean. Acidification had no effect on fertilization, but delayed larval development, stunted growth, and increased asymmetry. Warming decreased fertilization success when the sperm:egg ratio was higher (1847:1), accelerated larval development, but had no effect on growth. When exposed to both acidification and warming, fertilization rates decreased, larval development accelerated (due to increased respiration/metabolism), but larvae were smaller and more asymmetric, meaning acidification and warming had additive effects. Thus, climate change is expected to decrease the abundance of this important herbivore, exacerbating macroalgal growth and dominance on coral reefs.

PMID: 30955782 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

De Novo assembly and comparative transcriptome analyses of purple and green morphs of Apostichopus japonicus during body wall pigmentation process.

Thu, 05/02/2019 - 16:41
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De Novo assembly and comparative transcriptome analyses of purple and green morphs of Apostichopus japonicus during body wall pigmentation process.

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2018 12;28:151-161

Authors: Xing L, Sun L, Liu S, Li X, Zhang L, Yang H

Abstract
Pigmentation processes provide a traceable and relevant trait for understanding key issues in evolutionary biology such as adaptation, speciation and the maintenance of balanced polymorphisms. The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, which has nutritive and medical properties, is considered the most valuable commercial species in many parts of Asia. Compared with the green morph, the purple morph is rare and has great appeal to consumers. However, little is currently known about the molecular mechanism of body color formation in A. japonicus, even in echinoderm. Here, we employ illumina sequencing to examine expression patterns of the gene network underlying body wall development in purple and green morphs of A. japonicus. Overall, the number of down-regulated genes in the green morph was significantly more than in the purple morph during the pigmentation stage. We observed dynamic expression patterns of a large number of pigment, regulation and growth genes from the "Melanogenesis", "Melanoma", "Wnt signaling pathway", "Notch signaling pathway", "epithelium development", "epidermal growth factor receptor binding","growth factor activity" and "growth", including contrasting expression patterns of these genes in green and purple morph. This study provides comprehensive lists of differentially expressed genes during body wall development in the green and purple morphs, revealing potential candidate genes that may be involved in regulating body color formation and polymorphism. These data will provide valuable information for future genetic studies on sea cucumbers elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying pigmentation, and may support the culture of desirable color morphs.

PMID: 30241009 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Ocean warming alters predicted microbiome functionality in a common sea urchin.

Fri, 04/26/2019 - 16:17
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Ocean warming alters predicted microbiome functionality in a common sea urchin.

Proc Biol Sci. 2018 06 27;285(1881):

Authors: Brothers CJ, Van Der Pol WJ, Morrow CD, Hakim JA, Koo H, McClintock JB

Abstract
The microbiome of sea urchins plays a role in maintaining digestive health and innate immunity. Here, we investigated the effects of long-term (90 day) exposure to elevated seawater temperatures on the microbiome of the common, subtropical sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus The community composition and diversity of microbes varied according to the type of sample collected from the sea urchin (seawater, feed, intestines, coelomic fluid, digested pellet and faeces), with the lowest microbial diversity (predominately the order Campylobacterales) located in the intestinal tissue. Sea urchins exposed to near-future seawater temperatures maintained the community structure and diversity of microbes associated with their tissues. However, marginal, non-significant shifts in microbial community structure with elevated temperature resulted in significant changes in predicted metagenomic functions such as membrane transport and amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism. The predicted changes in key metabolic categories suggest that near-future climate-induced increases in seawater temperature could shift microbial community function and impact sea urchin digestive and immune physiology.

PMID: 29925614 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed

Early time course of variation in coelomic fluid ionic concentrations in sea urchins abruptly exposed to hypo- and hyper-osmotic salinity challenges: Role of size and cross-section area of test holes.

Wed, 04/24/2019 - 16:12
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Early time course of variation in coelomic fluid ionic concentrations in sea urchins abruptly exposed to hypo- and hyper-osmotic salinity challenges: Role of size and cross-section area of test holes.

J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol. 2017 11;327(9):542-550

Authors: Castellano GC, Lopes EM, Ventura CRR, Freire CA

Abstract
Echinoderms are restricted to the marine environment and are osmoconformer invertebrates. However, some species live in unstable environments. Especially those species, and those of larger body size, tend to show variable, albeit transient, ionic gradients between their coelomic fluid and external seawater. In order to further examine how sea urchin size relates to apparent ionic permeability of their body wall/epithelia, specimens of Echinometra lucunter, Lytechinus variegatus, Paracentrotus gaimardi, and Arbacia lixula-A. lixula of two distinct populations, Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina-were abruptly transferred from 35 psu to either 25 or 45 psu. Sodium, chloride, magnesium, and potassium concentrations were assayed in their coelomic fluids after 0, 1, 2, and 3 hr of exposure. Relative area of putative permeable (i.e., cross section areas of soft tissues, or test holes) surfaces (PPS) was estimated in empty tests as the sum of the peristomial area (oral hole in the empty test) and the total cross-section area of ambulacral holes, divided by the total volume (TV) of the test. L. variegatus and E. lucunter, the largest species, had PPS/TV values similar to that of the much smaller P. gaimardi. A. lixula was the "most putatively-permeable and conformer" among them all, especially urchins from the Santa Catarina population. Internal ionic levels equilibrated faster with external water in 45 than in 25, and differences among ions were observed. Body size is relevant, among many other factors, to aid conformers such as sea urchins to dwell in intertidal unstable habitats.

PMID: 29368803 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: pubmed